Magnetism, Graphene Oxide and Related Topics

19th August 2021

https://t.me/robinmg

Links to Papers Articles, Commercial documents and Videos as referenced below:

  1. Graphene doped with hydrogen reveals its magnetism

Extract: Hydrogen atoms can induce magnetism in graphene and be used to create a uniform magnetic order across the 1D material. That is the finding of researchers in Spain, France and Egypt, who also demonstrated that it is possible to atomically manipulate hydrogen atoms on graphene to control the local magnetic state.

  1. Superparamagnetic nanoparticle delivery of DNA vaccine

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/24715289/

Abstract: The efficiency of delivery of DNA vaccines is often relatively low compared to protein vaccines. The use of superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs) to deliver genes via magnetofection shows promise in improving the efficiency of gene delivery both in vitro and in vivo. In particular, the duration for gene transfection especially for in vitro application can be significantly reduced by magnetofection compared to the time required to achieve high gene transfection with standard protocols. SPIONs that have been rendered stable in physiological conditions can be used as both therapeutic and diagnostic agents due to their unique magnetic characteristics. Valuable features of iron oxide nanoparticles in bioapplications include a tight control over their size distribution, magnetic properties of these particles, and the ability to carry particular biomolecules to specific targets. The internalization and half-life of the particles within the body depend upon the method of synthesis. Numerous synthesis methods have been used to produce magnetic nanoparticles for bioapplications with different sizes and surface charges. The most common method for synthesizing nanometer-sized magnetite Fe3O4 particles in solution is by chemical coprecipitation of iron salts. The coprecipitation method is an effective technique for preparing a stable aqueous dispersions of iron oxide nanoparticles. We describe the production of Fe3O4-based SPIONs with high magnetization values (70 emu/g) under 15 kOe of the applied magnetic field at room temperature, with 0.01 emu/g remanence via a coprecipitation method in the presence of trisodium citrate as a stabilizer. Naked SPIONs often lack sufficient stability, hydrophilicity, and the capacity to be functionalized. In order to overcome these limitations, polycationic polymer was anchored on the surface of freshly prepared SPIONs by a direct electrostatic attraction between the negatively charged SPIONs (due to the presence of carboxylic groups) and the positively charged polymer. Polyethylenimine was chosen to modify the surface of SPIONs to assist the delivery of plasmid DNA into mammalian cells due to the polymer’s extensive buffering capacity through the “proton sponge” effect”

  1. The EMBO Journal: Is magnetogenetics the new optogenetics?

https://www.embopress.org/doi/full/10.15252/embj.201797177

Extract: Optogenetics has revolutionised neuroscience as it enables investigators to establish causal relationships between neuronal activity and a behavioural outcome in a temporally precise manner. It is a powerful technology, but limited by the necessity to deliver light to the cells of interest, which often requires invasive surgery and a tethered light source. Magnetogenetics aims to overcome these issues by manipulating neurons with magnetic stimuli. As magnetic fields can pass freely through organic tissue, it requires no surgery or tethering the animals to an energy source. In this commentary, we assess the utility of magnetogenetics based on three different approaches: magneto-thermo-genetics; force/torque-based methods; and expression of the iron chaperone ISCA1. Despite some progress, many hurdles need to be overcome if magnetogenetics is to take the helm from optogenetics”

  1. Using a smartphone and engineered cells to control diabetes in mice

https://medicalxpress.com/news/2017-04-smartphone-cells-diabetes-mice.html

Medical Xpress—“A team of researchers affiliated with several institutions in China has developed a way to combine a smartphone with a glucose monitor and engineered cells to automatically control insulin levels in test mice. In their paper published in the journal Science Translational Medicine the team describes their technique and how well it worked in the mice. Mark Gomelsk with the University of Wyoming offers a Focus piece in the same issue highlighting the work done by the team”

  1. The Graphene Flagship values ethics in all aspects of the project, from research topics to societal implications.

https://graphene-flagship.eu/collaboration/about-us/meet-the-team/ethics-advisory-board/

Extract: The following three areas are of particular interest, but may change as the Flagship progresses towards higher technology readiness level (TRL):Ethics of biological, health and environmental effects of graphene, and on biomedical and related applications. Any of these might involve in vitro research, small or large animal models, and eventually human interventions.Dual use. While all the research has an exclusively civilian focus, some of the technologies developed might find broader uses. This issue is becoming more important as the Flagship moves to higher TRLs.Responsible research and innovation. Since the Flagship covers a very broad range of topics, it has a wide variety of societal connections.

  1. Magnetic Strategies for Nervous System Control

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/30939100/

Abstract: Magnetic fields pass through tissue undiminished and without producing harmful effects, motivating their use as a wireless, minimally invasive means to control neural activity. Here, we review mechanisms and techniques coupling magnetic fields to changes in electrochemical potentials across neuronal membranes. Biological magnetoreception, although incompletely understood, is discussed as a potential source of inspiration. The emergence of magnetic properties in materials is reviewed to clarify the distinction between biomolecules containing transition metals and ferrite nanoparticles that exhibit significant net moments. We describe recent developments in the use of magnetic nanomaterials as transducers converting magnetic stimuli to forms readily perceived by neurons and discuss opportunities for multiplexed and bidirectional control as well as the challenges posed by delivery to the brain. The variety of magnetic field conditions and mechanisms by which they can be coupled to neuronal signaling cascades highlights the desirability of continued interchange between magnetism physics and neurobiology.

  1. Stanford physicists discover new quantum trick for graphene: magnetism

https://news.stanford.edu/2019/07/25/new-quantum-trick-graphene-magnetism/

Extract: Physicists were stunned when two twisted sheets of graphene showed signs of superconductivity. Now Stanford scientists have shown that the wonder material also generates a type of magnetism once only dreamed of theoretically.

  1. Toxicity of graphene-family nanoparticles: a general review of the origins and mechanisms

https://particleandfibretoxicology.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s12989-016-0168-y

Abstract :Due to their unique physicochemical properties, graphene-family nanomaterials (GFNs) are widely used in many fields, especially in biomedical applications. Currently, many studies have investigated the biocompatibility and toxicity of GFNs in vivo and in intro. Generally, GFNs may exert different degrees of toxicity in animals or cell models by following with different administration routes and penetrating through physiological barriers, subsequently being distributed in tissues or located in cells, eventually being excreted out of the bodies. This review collects studies on the toxic effects of GFNs in several organs and cell models. We also point out that various factors determine the toxicity of GFNs including the lateral size, surface structure, functionalization, charge, impurities, aggregations, and corona effect ect. In addition, several typical mechanisms underlying GFN toxicity have been revealed, for instance, physical destruction, oxidative stress, DNA damage, inflammatory response, apoptosis, autophagy, and necrosis. In these mechanisms, (toll-like receptors-) TLR-, transforming growth factor β- (TGF-β-) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) dependent-pathways are involved in the signalling pathway network, and oxidative stress plays a crucial role in these pathways. In this review, we summarize the available information on regulating factors and the mechanisms of GFNs toxicity, and propose some challenges and suggestions for further investigations of GFNs, with the aim of completing the toxicology mechanisms, and providing suggestions to improve the biological safety of GFNs and facilitate their wide application.

  1. Lentinan-Modified Carbon Nanotubes as an Antigen Delivery System Modulate Immune Response in Vitro and in Vivo

https://pubs.acs.org/doi/10.1021/acsami.6b04591#

Abstract: Adjuvants enhance immunogenicity and sustain long-term immune responses. As vital components of vaccines, efficient adjuvants are highly desirable. Recent evidence regarding the potential of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) to act as a support material has suggested that certain properties, such as their unique hollow structure, high specific surface area, and chemical stability, make CNTs desirable for a variety of antigen-delivery applications. Lentinan, a β-1,3-glucohexaose with β-1,6-branches that is extracted from the mushroom Lentinus edodes, is an effective immunostimulatory drug that has been clinically used in Japan and China, and recent studies have proved that specific beta-glucans can bind to various immune receptors. In this research, we covalently attached lentinan to multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) and tested their ability to enhance immune responses as a vaccine delivery system. In vitro study results showed that the nanotube constructs could rapidly enter dendritic cells and carry large amounts of antigen. Moreover, maturation markers were significantly upregulated versus the control. Thus, lentinan-modified multiwalled carbon nanotubes (L-MWCNTs) were regarded as an effective intracellular antigen depot and a catalyzer that could induce phenotypic and functional maturation of dendritic cells. Furthermore, compared with L-MWCNTs (35 μg/mL), a corresponding concentration of carboxylic carbon nanotubes (C-MWCNTs, 31.8 μg/mL) and an equivalent concentration of lentinan (3.2 μg/mL) did not remarkably influence the immune reaction in vitro or in vivo. Hence, we can hypothesize that the capability of L-MWCNTs was a consequence of the increased intracellular quantity of lentinan grafted onto the nanotubes. Overall, our studies demonstrated that L-MWCNTs significantly increased antigen accumulation in the cells and potentiated cellular and humoral immunity. In conclusion, L-MWCNTs constitute a potential vaccine delivery system to enhance immunogenicity for therapeutic purposes.


  1. Wearing face masks coated in graphene can cause serious lung problems, warns Health Canada

https://www.newstarget.com/2021-06-03-face-masks-coated-graphene-lung-problems.html

Extract: Wearing face masks could cause catastrophic lung problems, especially if they are the kind coated with graphene. This is despite the fact that advocates of masks and mask mandates believe that wearing them is essential to preventing the Wuhan coronavirus (COVID-19) from spreading.

  1. Polymer Embedded With Metallic Nanoparticles Enables Soft Robotics

https://spectrum.ieee.org/nanoclast/semiconductors/materials/polymer-embedded-with-metallic-nanoparticles-enables-soft-robotics

Extract “Nanomaterials are increasingly viewed as important ingredients in artificial muscles meant to power different types of robots. Carbon nanotubes have been proposed as well as graphene. Now researchers at North Carolina State University (NCSU), in Raleigh, have developed a technique for embedding nanoparticles of magnetite—an iron oxide—into a polymer so that when the material comes near a magnetic field the polymer moves. The researchers believe that the nanoparticle-studded polymer could lead to a method of remotely controlling so-called “soft robots” whose flexible components allow them to move around in tight spaces in a manner reminiscent of octopodes.”

  1. Scientists Flip Switch on Genes With a Magnet

https://spectrum.ieee.org/tech-talk/biomedical/devices/human-os-magnetogenetics-scientists-flip-switch-on-genes-with-a-magnet

Extract: Matching the brain’s machinery to behaviors and emotions was risky business throughout much of medical history. It was achievable, more or less, only through clumsy techniques such as lobotomies. Examiners who removed chunks of the brain could observe the surgery’s effects, but patients had to live with the results.

  1. The Royal Society of Chemistry

“A high impact, peer reviewed journal publishing experimental and theoretical work across the breadth of nanoscience and nanotechnology”

https://www.rsc.org/journals-books-databases/about-journals/nanoscale/

  1. Patent: WO2020060606 – CRYPTOCURRENCY SYSTEM USING BODY ACTIVITY DATA

BACKGROUND :”[0001] A virtual currency (also known as a digital currency) is a medium of exchange implemented through the Internet generally, not tied to a specific government-backed “flat” (printed) currency such as the U.S. dollar or the Euro, and typically designed to allow instantaneous transactions and borderless transfer of ownership. One example of virtual currency is cryptocurrency, wherein cryptography is used to secure transactions and to control the creation of new units.

[0002] Several cryptocurrencies exist. Among these, the most well known is a blockchain-based cryptocurrency. Most blockchain-based cryptocurrency is decentralized in the sense that it has no central point of control. However, blockchain-based cryptocurrency can also be implemented in a centralized system having a central point of control over the cryptocurrency. Bitcoin is one of the examples of blockchain-based cryptocurrency. It is described in a 2008 article by Satoshi Nakamoto, named“Bitcoin: “

  1. Superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs) modulate hERG ion channel activity

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/31437063/

Abstract: “Superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs) are widely used in various biomedical applications, such as diagnostic agents in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), for drug delivery vehicles and in hyperthermia treatment of tumors. Although the potential benefits of SPIONs are considerable, there is a distinct need to identify any potential cellular damage associated with their use. Since human ether à go-go-related gene (hERG) channel, a protein involved in the repolarization phase of cardiac action potential, is considered one of the main targets in the drug discovery process, we decided to evaluate the effects of SPIONs on hERG channel activity and to determine whether the oxidation state, the dimensions and the coating of nanoparticles (NPs) can influence the interaction with hERG channel. Using patch clamp recordings, we found that SPIONs inhibit hERG current and this effect depends on the coating of NPs. In particular, SPIONs with covalent coating aminopropylphosphonic acid (APPA) have a milder effect on hERG activity. We observed that the time-course of hERG channel modulation by SPIONs is biphasic, with a transient increase (∼20% of the amplitude) occurring within the first 1-3 min of perfusion of NPs, followed by a slower inhibition. Moreover, in the presence of SPIONs, deactivation kinetics accelerated and the activation and inactivation I-V curves were right-shifted, similarly to the effect described for the binding of other divalent metal ions (e.g. Cd2+ and Zn2+). Finally, our data show that a bigger size and the complete oxidation of SPIONs can significantly decrease hERG channel inhibition. Taken together, these results support the view that Fe2+ ions released from magnetite NPs may represent a cardiac risk factor, since they alter hERG gating and these alterations could compromise the cardiac action potential”

  1. SARS-CoV-2 Magnetic Beads and Plates

https://www.amsbio.com/sars-cov-2-magnetic-beads-plates/

Extract We provide pre-coupled magnetic beads coupled with biotinylated SARS-CoV-2 Spike RBD protein and SARS-CoV-2 S1 protein to streptavidin conjugated magnetic beads, suitable for capturing the anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies or ACE2 protein from cell or serum samples.

  1. Magnetofection™

http://www.chemicell.com/products/Magnetofection/Magnetofection_separation.html

Magnetofection™ is a novel, simple and highly efficient method to transfect cells in culture. It exploits magnetic force exerted upon gene vectors associated with magnetic particles to draw the vectors towards, possibly even into, the target cells. In this manner, the full vector dose applied gets concentrated on the cells within a few minutes so that 100% of the cells get in contact with a significant vector dose.”

  1. Nano coronavirus recombinant vaccine taking graphene oxide as carrier

Abstract: “The invention belongs to the field of nano materials and biomedicine, and relates to a vaccine, in particular to development of 2019-nCoV coronavirus nuclear recombinant nano vaccine. The invention also comprises a preparation method of the vaccine and application of the vaccine in animal experiments. The new corona vaccine contains graphene oxide, carnosine, CpG and new corona virus RBD; binding carnosine, CpG and neocoronavirus RBD on the backbone of graphene oxide; the CpG coding sequence is shown as SEQ ID NO 1; the novel coronavirus RBD refers to a novel coronavirus protein receptor binding region which can generate a high-titer specific antibody aiming at the RBD in a mouse body, and provides a strong support for prevention and treatment of the novel coronavirus”

  1. Preparation and application of pachyman nano adjuvant based on graphene oxide and adjuvant/antigen co-delivery vaccine

Abstract:”Preparation and application of pachyman nano adjuvant and adjuvant/antigen co-delivery vaccine based on graphene oxide, belonging to the field of medicines. The invention comprises a pachyman nano adjuvant which is formed by taking a nano graphene oxide material as a carrier and pachyman loaded on the carrier, and an adjuvant/antigen co-delivery vaccine formed by the adjuvant and an antigen. The pachyman nanometer adjuvant can promote dendritic cell maturation, enhance lymphocyte function, facilitate drug release, effectively prolong drug effect, prevent immune tolerance, and greatly enhance immune effect and reaction time. The adjuvant/antigen co-delivery vaccine enhances the bioavailability of pachyman and antigen, enables the antigen and the adjuvant to be ingested by the same cell, greatly enhances the targeting property of the vaccine, and can induce not only humoral immunity but also stronger cellular immunity. The invention is used as a novel adjuvant and vaccine, and can be expected to be used for preventing and treating human diseases”

  1. STUDY ON THE ELECTROMAGNETISM OF VACCINATED PERSONS IN LUXEMBOURG

Extract: “For the past few months, hundreds of amateur videos have been popping up all over social media featuring people who have visibly become electromagnetic following vaccination. After many questions were raised by a number of our members about this “supposed” electromagnetic effect in vaccinated subjects, our association decided to take a concrete interest in this intriguing subject. This survey, of a purely statistical and sociological nature, on this supposed electromagnetic effect, which is the subject of this report, raises at least three important questions: 1. Is it true that people show an electromagnetic effect after vaccination? 2. If so, is it true that only vaccinated individuals show this effect? 3. What is actually injected into individuals under the qualification of vaccine that causes this effect? To try to answer these questions, the survey was entrusted to Mr. Amar GOUDJIL, treasurer of the association and member in charge of demographic and sociological issues”

  1. Targeted Dream Incubation

https://www.media.mit.edu/projects/targeted-dream-incubation/overview/

Extract: “Targeted Dream Incubation is a method for guiding dreams towards specific themes. It is a proposal both magnetic and unlikely: Can we really engineer dreams, our internal worlds that feel so fundamentally out of our control?” 

  1. Advertising in Dreams is Coming: Now What?

https://dxe.pubpub.org/pub/dreamadvertising/release/1

Extract: “Molson Coors recently announced a new kind of advertising campaign. Timed for the days before Super Bowl Sunday, it was designed to infiltrate our dreams [1]. They planned to use “targeted dream incubation” (TDI) [2] to alter the dreams of the nearly 100 million Super Bowl viewers the night before the game”

  1. Electrochemical Sensors and Biosensors Based on Graphene Functionalized with Metal Oxide Nanostructures for Healthcare Applications

https://chemistry-europe.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1002/slct.201803871

Abstract: Graphene has attracted wide consideration in recent years to the assembly of sensitive sensors and biosensors due to its unique and remarkable physical and electrochemical properties. Moreover, graphene, as an essential two-dimensional carbon material with remarkably high quartz and electronic superiority, has also received significant research attention. This review presents the different synthesis techniques of graphene; graphene functionalized based electrochemical sensors and biosensors for various health care appellations. Further, were discussed on the basis of enhanced catalytic activity, improved detection limit in conjunction with sensitivity, and selectivity. Synergistic action of graphene and metal oxide nanostructure has contributed towards high activity as a biosensing material. The results with different sensors and biosensors for the detection of significant biomarkers such as protein sensor, electrochemical immune sensor, phytochrome sensor, cholesterol biosensor glucose, hydrogen peroxide, and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide detection sensor etc., and highlighted the use of graphene and functionalized graphene in different sensing platforms. Finally, the challenges related to less aggregated graphene-based electrochemical sensors and biosensors as well as future research directions are discussed.

  1. MAGNETISM INTENTIONALLY ADDED TO ‘VACCINE’ TO FORCE MRNA THROUGH ENTIRE BODY + PDF INSTRUCTION MANUAL
  1. Magnetofection: Magic magnetic nanoparticles for efficient gene delivery

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S1001841720304228

Abstract: Magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) have become a research hotspot and widely used in the biomedical field in recent decades due to their unique magnetic properties. This minireview summarizes the specific gene transfection of magnetic particles (magnetofection) during eversy dynamic process of gene delivery (gene binding, cellular uptake, endosomal escape, intracellular trafficking and in vivo targeting). Meanwhile, the synergistic biomedical application of magnetofection and the effects of MNPs have also been discussed, including magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), magnetic mediated hyperthermia (MMH), Fenton reaction and autophagy. Finally, the clinical prospect of magnetofection was briefly expected.

  1. Magnetofection

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Magnetofection

Extract: Magnetofection is a transfection method that uses magnetic fields to concentrate particles containing nucleic acid and in-utero samples to the target cells of the body.[1] This method attempts to unite the advantages of the biochemical (cationic lipids or polymer atoms) and physical (electroporationgene gun) transfection methods in one system while excluding their inconveniences (low efficiency, toxicity)

  1. MRNA: A COMPLETE GUIDELINE

https://www.ozbiosciences.com/blog/110-mrna-a-complete-guideline

Extract: RNA therapeutics is booming and the mRNA field is generating huge expectations. Although microRNA (miRNA), small interfering RNA (siRNA), messenger RNA (mRNA), long non-coding RNA (lncRNA), self-amplifying RNA (sa RNA) and genome editing systems containing RNA components like guide RNA (gRNA), represent useful tools in research and clinics.

  1. Helix-IN Transfection Reagent

https://www.ozbiosciences.com/broad-spectrum/110-helix-in-dna-transfection-reagent.html

Extract: Helix-IN™ DNA Transfection Reagent opens up new possibilities for addressing issues of classical transfection technologies.
OZ Biosciences revolutionizes Polyfection with the design of Helix-IN™, a novel patented Cationic Hydroxylated Amphiphilic Multi-block Polymer (CHAMP™ Technology). This novel bi-functional co-polymer is biocompatible, ionizable, pH responsive and biodegradable.

  1. Magnetogenetics

https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Magnetogenetics

Extract: “Magnetogenetics refers to a biological technique that involves the use of magnetic fields to remotely control cell activity.

In most cases, magnetic stimulation is transformed into either force (magneto-mechanical genetics) or heat (magneto-thermal genetics), which depends on the applied magnetic field. Therefore, cells are usually genetically modified to express ion channels that are either mechanically or thermally gated. As such, magnetogenetics is a cellular modulation method that uses a combination of techniques from magnetism and genetics to control activities of individual cells in living tissue – even within freely moving animals.”

  1. La Quinta Columna explains how graphene multiplies frequencies and damages cells, and how reducing agents help to control that damage

https://www.orwell.city/2021/07/graphene-and-frequencies.html

Extract: La Quinta Columna is slowly getting closer to the studies they need to prove their hypothesis about the relationship between graphene and 5G and how this combination would contribute to damage people who have the nanomaterial in their bodies.

  1. La Quinta Columna discusses a study on the properties of graphene and their link with EMF

https://www.orwell.city/2021/07/graphene-and-frequencies-part-2.html

Extract: La Quinta Columna explains how graphene multiplies frequencies and damages cells, and how reducing agents help to control that damage (part 2)

  1. La Quinta Columna on Neuromodulation and Brain Dysfunction Tsunami

https://www.orwell.city/2021/07/neuromodulation-and-brain-dysfunction-tsunami.html

Extract: La Quinta Columna explaining more about the tsunami of neurological dysfunctions announced by the globalist media, dysfunctions derived from the damage caused by graphene oxide and electromagnetic frequencies in the GHz range.

  1. La Quinta Columna: Graphene Oxide toxicity causes Erectile Dysfunction and Sperm Toxicity

https://www.orwell.city/2021/07/graphene-oxide-causes-erectile-dysfunction.html

Extract : Many men have reported experiencing erectile dysfunction after being vaccinated. This side effect is directly related to low zinc levels produced by the presence of graphene oxide in the body.

  1. La Quinta Columna: Zinc helps raise glutathione levels and glutathione helps degrade graphene oxide

https://www.orwell.city/2021/07/zinc-glutathione.html

Extract La Quinta Columna research on how to detoxify graphene in the body. The team already mentioned that N-acetylcysteine and glutathione certainly work to degrade graphene, but today they talked about a very readily available supplement: zinc. 

  1. La Quinta Columna comments on the mysterious patent that attempts to normalize the use of graphene oxide as a carrier in vaccines

https://www.orwell.city/2021/07/la-quinta-columna-on-potentially-false-patent.html

Extract: La Quinta Columna addresses the patent that appeared in Google Patents on the use of graphene oxide as a carrier in vaccines.

  1. Potentially false patent on the use of graphene oxide as a carrier in vaccines appears a few hours ago

https://www.orwell.city/2021/07/potentially-false-patent.html

  1. Dr. Luis Marcelo Martínez talks about the toxicity of graphene and scientific literature with false publication dates

https://www.orwell.city/2021/07/graphene-and-scientific-literature.html

Extract: The interview covered topics such as the non-existence of the Spike protein and the presence of graphene and other nano-components that should not be in a vaccine.

  1. Dr. Luis Marcelo Martínez: ‘The Spike protein is nothing more than graphene inside your body and spiking you’

https://www.orwell.city/2021/07/the-spike-protein-is-graphene-oxide.html

Extract :Dr. Martinez explains that the pandemic must be treated from an engineering point of view and not only from a health point of view since it was discovered that vaccines contain graphene oxide, but experts in the area of electromagnetism must also be brought in to understand how to deal with what we are experiencing

  1. BREAKING: La Quinta Columna shares photos of graphene oxide detected in AstraZeneca vaccination vial

https://www.orwell.city/2021/07/graphene-oxide-in-astrazeneca-vial.html

https://www.orwell.city/2021/07/graphene-oxide-in-astrazeneca-vaccination-vial.html

Extract: Photos of graphene oxide in AstraZeneca’s vaccination vial.

  1. Observation of magnetic domains in graphene magnetized by controlling temperature, strain and magnetic field

https://www.nature.com/articles/s41598-020-78262-w

Abstract:Since the production of ferromagnetic graphene as an extremely important matter in spintronics has made a revolution in future technology, a great deal of efforts has recently been done to reach a simple and cost-effective method. Up to now, controlling the magnetic properties at extremely low temperature have been investigated only by adding and removing atoms in graphene lattice. In this regard, the effect of strain on the magnetic and electronic properties of graphene has been probed. Here, the ferromagnetic properties are what have been created by strain, magnetic field, and temperature along with observation of the parallel magnetic domains in ferromagnetic graphene for the first time as a great achievement. In this way, we have represented the following: First, introducing three novel methods based on temperature, magnetic field, and strain for producing ferromagnetic graphene; Second, obtaining ferromagnetic graphene at room temperature by significant magnetization saturation in mass-scale; Third, probing the electronic systems and vibrational modes by Raman and IR spectroscopy; Fourth, introducing stacking and aggregation as two types of gathering process for graphene sheets; Fifth, comparing the results with leidenfrost effect-based method which the temperature, magnetic fields, and strain are simultaneously applied to graphene flakes (our previous work).

  1. Interfacing Graphene-Based Materials With Neural Cells

https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fnsys.2018.00012/full

Extract: The scientific community has witnessed an exponential increase in the applications of graphene and graphene-based materials in a wide range of fields, from engineering to electronics to biotechnologies and biomedical applications. For what concerns neuroscience, the interest raised by these materials is two-fold. On one side, nanosheets made of graphene or graphene derivatives (graphene oxide, or its reduced form) can be used as carriers for drug delivery. Here, an important aspect is to evaluate their toxicity, which strongly depends on flake composition, chemical functionalization and dimensions. On the other side, graphene can be exploited as a substrate for tissue engineering. In this case, conductivity is probably the most relevant amongst the various properties of the different graphene materials, as it may allow to instruct and interrogate neural networks, as well as to drive neural growth and differentiation, which holds a great potential in regenerative medicine. In this review, we try to give a comprehensive view of the accomplishments and new challenges of the field, as well as which in our view are the most exciting directions to take in the immediate future. These include the need to engineer multifunctional nanoparticles (NPs) able to cross the blood-brain-barrier to reach neural cells, and to achieve on-demand delivery of specific drugs. We describe the state-of-the-art in the use of graphene materials to engineer three-dimensional scaffolds to drive neuronal growth and regeneration in vivo, and the possibility of using graphene as a component of hybrid composites/multi-layer organic electronics devices. Last but not least, we address the need of an accurate theoretical modeling of the interface between graphene and biological material, by modeling the interaction of graphene with proteins and cell membranes at the nanoscale, and describing the physical mechanism(s) of charge transfer by which the various graphene materials can influence the excitability and physiology of neural cells.

  1. Europe Has Invested €1 Billion Into Graphene—But For What?

https://spectrum.ieee.org/nanoclast/semiconductors/nanotechnology/europe-has-invested-1-billion-into-graphenebut-for-what

Extract: Six years into an ambitious 10-year research project, experts weigh in on whether the Graphene Flagship can help the “wonder material” make it through the Valley of Death.

  1. Effect of radiofrequency radiation from Wi-Fi devices on mercury release from amalgam restorations

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4944481/

Background: Dental amalgam is composed of approximately 50% elemental mercury. Despite concerns over the toxicity of mercury, amalgam is still the most widely used restorative material. Wi-Fi is a rapidly using local area wireless computer networking technology. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study that evaluates the effect of exposure to Wi-Fi signals on mercury release from amalgam restorations.

  1. Magnetic Drug Targeting: A Novel Treatment for Intramedullary Spinal Cord Tumors

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/30061692/

Abstract: Most applications of nanotechnology in cancer have focused on systemic delivery of cytotoxic drugs. Systemic delivery relies on accumulation of nanoparticles in a target tissue through enhanced permeability of leaky vasculature and retention effect of poor lymphatic drainage to increase the therapeutic index. Systemic delivery is limited, however, by toxicity and difficulty crossing natural obstructions, like the blood spine barrier. Magnetic drug targeting (MDT) is a new technique to reach tumors of the central nervous system. Here, we describe a novel therapeutic approach for high-grade intramedullary spinal cord tumors using magnetic nanoparticles (MNP). Using biocompatible compounds to form a superparamagnetic carrier and magnetism as a physical stimulus, MNP-conjugated with doxorubicin were successfully localized to a xenografted tumor in a rat model. This study demonstrates proof-of-concept that MDT may provide a novel technique for effective, concentrated delivery of chemotherapeutic agents to intramedullary spinal cord tumors without the toxicity of systemic administration.

  1. Could Magnetic Hydrogel Explain the COVID Vax Magnet Phenomenon?

https://thefreedomarticles.com/does-magnetic-hydrogel-explain-covid-vax-magnet-phenomenon/

Extract: Is magnetic hydrogel the cause, given the recent studies showing it can be magnetically activated and remotely controlled via the Smart Grid? Or are there other explanations involving metallic nanoparticles?

  1. Synthetic Biology: Advancing New Applications

Extract: We are no longer talking about simply cutting and pasting DNA but actually being able to program the specific nucleotide code that goes into a cell,” says Timothy Lu, associate member of the Broad Institute and director of the Synthetic Biology Group at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT). This reprogramming lies at the heart of the relatively new and rapidly expanding field of synthetic biology, which is allowing scientists to begin developing, simulating, testing, and building cells for a range of applications.

  1. Exploring Biodigital Convergence

Extract: In the late 1970s and early 1980s, Canadians and policy makers began to understand that the digital age was upon us. Early movers seized opportunities, grappled with challenges, and initiated deft policies that have provided benefits for decades. We continue to see the powerful effects of digitization, and more are surely to come. But we may be on the cusp of another disruption of similar magnitude. Digital technologies and biological systems are beginning to combine and merge in ways that could be profoundly disruptive to our assumptions about society, the economy, and our bodies. We call this the biodigital convergence.

  1. The First Self-Powering Nano-Device That Can Also Transmit Wireless Data

Extract: Scientists working with DARPA and Department of Energy backing have cracked the code on a kind of technological milestone, for the first time developing a nano-device capable of powering itself by harvesting energy from vibrations while at the same time transmitting data wirelessly over long distances. That kind of technology could have huge implications for devices ranging from surveillance implements to airborne sensors to implantable medical devices.

  1. Transhumanism: Expert exposes liberal billionaire elitists’ ‘Great Reset’ agenda

Extract: The COVID-19 pandemic was manufactured by the world’s elites as part of a plan to globally advance “transhumanism” — literally, the fusion of human beings with technology in an attempt to alter human nature itself and create a superhuman being and an “earthly paradise,” according to a Peruvian academic and expert in technology.

  1. Experimental Investigation of Magnetic Nanoparticle- Enchanced Microwave Hyperthermia

https://www.mdpi.com/2079-4983/8/3/21/pdf

Abstract: The objective of this study was to evaluate microwave heating enhancements offered by iron/iron oxide nanoparticles dispersed within tissue-mimicking media for improving efficacy of microwave thermal therapy

  1. From Magneto-Dielectric Biocomposite Films to Microstrip Antenna Devices

https://www.mdpi.com/2504-477X/4/4/144/pdf

Abstract: Magneto-dielectric composites are interesting advanced materials principally due to their potential applications in electronic fields, such as in microstrip antennas substrates.

  1. Potential toxicity of superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPION) -2010 study

Abstract :Superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPION) are being widely used for various biomedical applications, for example, magnetic resonance imaging, targeted delivery of drugs or genes, and in hyperthermia. Although, the potential benefits of SPION are considerable, there is a distinct need to identify any potential cellular damage associated with these nanoparticles. Besides focussing on cytotoxicity, the most commonly used determinant of toxicity as a result of exposure to SPION, this review also mentions the importance of studying the subtle cellular alterations in the form of DNA damage and oxidative stress. We review current studies and discuss how SPION, with or without different surface coating, may cause cellular perturbations including modulation of actin cytoskeleton, alteration in gene expression profiles, disturbance in iron homeostasis and altered cellular responses such as activation of signalling pathways and impairment of cell cycle regulation. The importance of proteinSPION interaction and various safety considerations relating to SPION exposure are also addressed.

  1. Biogenic metallic elements in the human brain?

https://advances.sciencemag.org/content/7/24/eabf6707


Abstract:The chemistry of copper and iron plays a critical role in normal brain function. A variety of enzymes and proteins containing positively charged Cu+, Cu2+, Fe2+, and Fe3+ control key processes, catalyzing oxidative metabolism and neurotransmitter and neuropeptide production. Here, we report the discovery of elemental (zero–oxidation state) metallic Cu0 accompanying ferromagnetic elemental Fe0 in the human brain. These nanoscale biometal deposits were identified within amyloid plaque cores isolated from Alzheimer’s disease subjects, using synchrotron x-ray spectromicroscopy. The surfaces of nanodeposits of metallic copper and iron are highly reactive, with distinctly different chemical and magnetic properties from their predominant oxide counterparts. The discovery of metals in their elemental form in the brain raises new questions regarding their generation and their role in neurochemistry, neurobiology, and the etiology of neurodegenerative disease.

  1. SARS-CoV-2 Spike RBD-coupled Magnetic Beads

https://www.acrobiosystems.com/P3194-SARS-CoV-2-Spike-RBD-coupled-Magnetic-Beads.html

Background: The pre-coupled magnetic beads coupled with biotinylated SARS-CoV-2 Spike RBD protein to streptavidin conjugated magnetic beads, which can capture the Anti- SARS-CoV-2 antibody or ACE2 protein from cell or serum sample. The beads are in uniform size, narrow size distribution with large surface area and unique surface coating, which can help you get the best performance and highly reproducible results. This very first SARS-CoV-2 Spike protein RBD-coupled magnetic beads will bring great convenience with minimum non-specific binding and developed protocols. This ready to use products could greatly save your time and hassle.

  1. MAGNETS STICKING TO THE VACCINATED MAY BE SOMETHING MUCH WORSE THAN PEOPLE REALIZE! GENETICALLY ENGINEERED ‘MAGNETO’ PROTEIN REMOTELY CONTROLS BRAIN AND BEHAVIOR

https://blazingpress.com/magnets-sticking-to-the-vaccinated-may-be-something-much-worse-than-people-realize/

Biodistribution and clearance of magnetoelectric nanoparticles for nanomedical applications using energy dispersive spectroscopy

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5551528/?report=reader#!po=6.73077

Abstract: Aim: The biodistribution and clearance of magnetoelectric nanoparticles (MENs) in a mouse model was studied through electron energy dispersive spectroscopy.

  1. The Magnetoelectric Nanoparticle

http://m.perspectivesinmedicine.cshlp.org/content/9/8/a034207.full

Abstract: To enable patient- and disease-specific diagnostic and treatment at the intracellular level in real time, it is imperative to engineer a perfect way to locally stimulate selected individual neurons, navigate and dispense a cargo of biomolecules into damaged cells or image sites with relatively high efficacy and with adequate spatial and temporal resolutions. Significant progress has been made using biotechnology; especially with the development of bioinformatics, there are endless molecular databases to identify biomolecules to target almost any disease-specific biomarker. Conversely, the technobiology approach that exploits advanced engineering to control underlying molecular mechanisms to recover biosystem’s energy states at the molecular level as well as at the level of the entire network of cells (i.e., the internet of the human body) is still in its early research stage. The recently developed magnetoelectric nanoparticles (MENPs) provide a tool to enable the unique capabilities of technobiology. Using exemplary studies that could potentially lead to future pinpoint treatment and prevention of cancer, neurodegenerative diseases, and HIV, this article discusses how MENPs could become a vital enabling tool of technobiology.

  1. Manipulative magnetic nanomedicine: the future of COVID-19 pandemic/endemic therapy

https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/17425247.2021.1860938

Extract: Nanobiotechnology is emerging very promising to investigate novel methodologies for managing COVID-19 pandemic/endemic successfully [2,5]. In this direction, experts have explored the opto-electro-magnetic nanosystem to detect the SARS-CoV-2 virus using a biosensing approach. Such optical, electrical, or magnetic biosensors function based on geno-sensing and immune-sensing has detected the SARS-CoV-2 virus selectively at a very low level [7,8]. These efficient-miniaturized biosensors can be operated using a smartphone and promoted for clinical application for early-stage diagnostics of COVID-19 infection.

  1. HOW NANOBOTS WILL HELP IN VACCINE DELIVERY & DEVELOPMENT

Extract: Nanobots in the vaccine are so far one of the best methods for vaccination, because of its precise, accurate, target-specific and Fast-acting properties

  1. LUCIFERASE CHAIN REACTION TO ID2020

https://geopolitic.org/2020/12/02/luciferase-chain-reaction-to-id2020/

  1. Magnetofection

https://www.sciencedirect.com/topics/biochemistry-genetics-and-molecular-biology/magnetofection

  1. Chapter 8 – Synthesis of Magnetic Iron Oxide Nanoparticles

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780128053645000081

Abstract:This book chapter deals with biomedical applications of iron oxide nanoparticles (IONPs). In view of achieving proper control of particle size, shape, crystallinity, polydispersity, and finally the magnetic property, attention has to be paid to characteristics as well as advantages and disadvantages of common synthesis routes. Furthermore, proper surface functionalizations of IONPs with regard to their possible biomedical applications will be explained in detail. The second main focus is placed on several examples of biomedical applications in vitro and in vivo. Due to their unique features, it will be shown that they are adapted for a broad range of task fields. This creates very promising prospects for their further use especially in the treatment of diseases. To conclude, it will be outlined that although there are many publications stating the effectiveness of magnetic nanoparticles, data about biocompatibility and especially toxicology have yet to be collected in an appropriate manner.



  1. Cell Transfection

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780444640468000239

Abstract:Transfection is a process of introducing nucleic acid into eukaryotic cells using various chemical or physical methods. Transduction is another popular transfection technology that uses viral vectors to deliver foreign genes. In the past decade, transfection technologies have evolved tremendously, for stable clone generation, therapeutic protein production, viral vaccines and gene therapy application. The transfection work was initially limited to small-scale operations.

Operation of suspension cultures and the removal of serum from the medium for transfection were major improvements that made it possible to advance this technology to large-scale operations. PEI–DNA condensation method has been preferred among the researchers to further the advancement of transfection technology. Transient cell transfection technology is a powerful tool to deliver sufficient quantities of recombinant human therapeutic proteins in a cost-effective manner within a couple of weeks. In addition, progress in large-scale transfection technology has been successfully implemented in efficient manufacturing of viral vectors for gene therapy.



  1. Chapter 9 – Tissue Engineering Using Magnetite Nanoparticles

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780124160200000097

Extract: The major advantage of magnetic manipulation is “remote control.” Magnetic labeling of cells with magnetic nanoparticles enables the manipulation of cells and also the control of cell functions by applying an external magnetic field. “Functional” magnetite nanoparticles were developed for cell manipulation using magnetic force, and the magnetite nanoparticles were applied to tissue-engineering processes, which are designated as magnetic force-based tissue engineering (Mag-TE). This chapter reviews recent progress in Mag-TE techniques, and the principles and utilities of the applications are discussed. This review covers three topics of magnetic cell manipulation using magnetite nanoparticles, including a magnetic force-based gene transfer technique (magnetofection), magnetic cell patterning using functional magnetite nanoparticles and micro-patterned magnetic field gradient concentrators, and finally applications for fabrication of tissue-like constructs in skin, liver, and muscle tissue engineering.

  1. Chapter 11 – Viral and Nonviral Vectors for In Vivo and Ex Vivo Gene Therapies

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780128005484000115

Abstract: Gene therapy is the therapeutic delivery of nucleic acids for treatment of genetic diseases into patient’s cells. They might be either expressed as proteins, interfere with the expression of proteins, or possibly even correct genetic mutations. But this may be approached by two different ways: (1) ex vivo, which is when cells are modified outside the body and then transplanted back again. Cells from the patient’s blood or bone marrow are removed and grown in the laboratory to be genetically modified by different molecular biology techniques on a dish. This also involves the so-called cell therapy which is now widely used. (2) But also gene therapy could be approached by in vivo therapy, in which the gene is transferred into the cells inside the patient’s body. However, an efficient transfer of the genetic material into a cell is necessary to achieve the desired therapeutic effect. The therapeutic molecule is packaged into vehicles called vectors, but the “vector” is used to carry the nucleic acid inside the cells within the body, facilitating the transfer of genetic information into a cell. The simplest way to perform gene therapy involves the use of therapeutic naked DNA that encodes a functional gene to replace a mutated version of the defective gene. In most cases, a relatively large piece of genetic material (>1 kb) is required which includes the promoter sequences that activate the expression of the gene, the coding sequences that direct the production of a specific protein, and signaling sequences that direct RNA processing such as polyadenylation. In this way, no vector would be required but the efficiency of this methodology was demonstrated to be low. Vectors can be divided into viral and nonviral delivery systems. The two major methods are those that use biological nanoparticles (mainly recombinant viruses or also called viral vectors, although recently exosomes are taking a place among the biological vectors for genetic transfer) and those that use chemical nanoparticles on DNA complexes or naked DNA (nonviral methods). In this chapter, we will review both categories and their applications in clinical trials.

  1. Chapter One – Nonviral Vectors: We Have Come a Long Way

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780128001486000018

Abstract: Gene therapy, once thought to be the future of medicine, has reached the beginning stages of exponential growth. Many types of diseases are now being studied and treated in clinical trials through various gene delivery vectors. It appears that the future is here, and gene therapy is just beginning to revolutionize the way patients are treated. However, as promising as these ongoing treatments and clinical trials are, there are many more barriers and challenges that need to be addressed and understood in order to continue this positive growth. Our knowledge of these challenging factors such as gene uptake and expression should be expanded in order to improve existing delivery systems. This chapter will provide a brief overview on recent advances in the field of nonviral vectors for gene therapy as well as point out some novel vectors that have assisted in the extraordinary growth of nonviral gene therapy as we know it today.



  1. 9 – Fabrication and development of magnetic particles for gene therapy

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780081005200000096

Abstract: Nanotechnology plays a major role in modern disease diagnosis and treatment. Magnetic particles made up of metal oxides have become a major tool in modern medical treatment strategies, due to their theranostic applications. In particular, polymer-coated magnetic particles are a current interest of researchers in the fields of bio-nanomedicine and fundamental biomaterials. The most important characteristics of these particles are the ability to perform both diagnosis and therapy in a single formulation that would otherwise be impossible with conventional formulations that have only one therapeutic application. Theranostic magnetic nanoparticles encapsulated or coated with a polymer exhibit imaging properties in response to external stimuli, while polymer coatings can also efficiently bind various therapeutic cargo (e.g.,

delivery application of magnetic particles including microRNA and siRNA are discussed.

  1. Small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) as cancer therapeutics

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780857096647500112

Abstract: A prerequisite for the therapeutic application of small interfering RNAs (siRNA) as anticancer agents is the development of effective delivery systems. Lipid- and polymer-based vehicles have been exploited to facilitate the intracellular delivery of siRNAs. In this chapter, the current status of anticancer siRNA therapeutics is covered, with an emphasis on various delivery technologies.

  1. Gene Delivery Using Physical Methods

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780123849649000037

Summary: This chapter focuses on the delivery of DNA by various physical methods such as electroporation (EP), sonoporation, microinjection, particle bombardment (gene gun), and hydrodynamic injection with the application of external physical force (pressure, sound, shock wave, and electric pulses for efficient gene transfer inside organs and cells. The chapter discusses the methods for achieving higher gene transfection at the desired site than those achieved with nonphysical methods of administering a similar dose of DNA. The chapter provides an overview of the principles, techniques, protocols, and applications of these physical methods of gene delivery and their advantages and limitations, in terms of the kinetics and efficiency of gene delivery, toxicity profile of delivery, in vivo feasibility of the method, and targeting ability. The comparison among various physical, chemical, and biological nonviral systems for DNA delivery with their advantages and disadvantages is explained.

  1. Chapter 10 – Gene therapy approaches in central nervous system regenerative medicine

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780128180846000106

Abstract:This chapter introduces the use of gene therapy strategies as therapeutic approaches for regenerative medicine of diseases affecting the central nervous system (CNS). It starts by defining gene therapy and its potential, followed by a general description of the most used vectors in clinical assays as well as their relative advantages and disadvantages. Then, there is a section describing the main vectors used in preclinical and clinical assays in CNS, their tropisms and the recommended administration routes to achieve restricted or widespread vector distribution, or to target specific cell types. Finally, there is a summary of neurodegenerative diseases currently treated by gene therapy strategies, the success and pitfalls reported at present.

  1. Genetically engineered ‘Magneto’ protein remotely controls brain and behaviour

https://www.theguardian.com/science/neurophilosophy/2016/mar/24/magneto-remotely-controls-brain-and-behaviour

Extract: Researchers in the United States have developed a new method for controlling the brain circuits associated with complex animal behaviours, using genetic engineering to create a magnetised protein that activates specific groups of nerve cells from a distance.

  1. Magnetic graphene oxide: Synthesis approaches, physicochemical characteristics, and biomedical applications

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S0165993621000133

Abstract: Magnetic graphene oxide, a compound of magnetic nanoparticles and graphene oxide, possesses distinct physical and chemical characteristics, including nano size, a large specific surface area, paramagnetic and biocompatible properties, making it a promising biomaterial in the field of biomedicine. In particular, its excellent characteristics, including the integration of specific photothermal properties, magnetic thermal properties, paramagnetism, active chemical bonds, hydrophilicity, and low cytotoxicity, have been applied to remarkable bio-applications in bioimaging, biosensors, biochemical extraction and separation, stem cell regulation and the induction of differentiation, targeted drug delivery, and cancer therapy. In this review, we concentrate on the approaches of preparation, fundamental structures, biocompatibility, and the biomedical applications of magnetic graphene oxide composites.

  1. Reaction between Graphene Oxide and Intracellular Glutathione Affects Cell Viability and Proliferation

https://okayama.pure.elsevier.com/en/publications/reaction-between-graphene-oxide-and-intracellular-glutathione-aff

Abstract: Graphene oxide (GO) is currently developed for biomedical applications as a promising nanoplatform for drug delivery, phototherapy, and biosensing. As a consequence, its safety and cytotoxicity issues have attracted extensive attention. It has been demonstrated that GO causes an increase of intracellular oxidative stress, likely leading to its cytotoxicity and inhibition of cell proliferation. Being one of the main reductive intracellular substances, glutathione (GSH) is vital in the regulation of the oxidative stress level to maintain normal cellular functions. In this study, we found that GSH could be oxidized to GSSG by GO, leading to the formation of reduced GO (rGO). GSH depletion affects the intracellular reductive/oxidative balance, provoking the increase of the reactive oxygen species level, sequentially inhibiting cell viability and proliferation. Therefore, the reaction between GO and GSH provides a new perspective to explain the origin of GO cytotoxicity.



  1. Disabling parts of the brain with magnets can weaken faith in God and change attitudes to immigrants, study finds

https://www.independent.co.uk/news/science/archaeology/news/brain-magnets-decrease-faith-god-religion-immigrants-a6695291.html

  1. Iron overload by Superparamagnetic Iron Oxide Nanoparticles is a High Risk Factor in Cirrhosis by a Systems Toxicology As Assessment

https://www.nature.com/articles/srep29110

Abstract: Superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs) as a contrast agent have been widely used in magnetic resonance imaging for tumor diagnosis and theranostics. However, there has been safety concern of SPIONs with cirrhosis related to excess iron-induced oxidative stress. In this study, the impact of iron overload by SPIONs was assessed on a mouse cirrhosis model. A single dose of SPION injection at 0.5 or 5 mg Fe/kg in the cirrhosis group induced a septic shock response at 24 h with elevated serum levels of liver and kidney function markers and extended impacts over 14 days including high levels of serum cholesterols and persistent low serum iron level. In contrast, full restoration of liver functions was found in the normal group with the same dosages over time. Analysis with PCR array of the toxicity pathways revealed the high dose of SPIONs induced significant expression changes of a distinct subset of genes in the cirrhosis liver. All these results suggested that excess iron of the high dose of SPIONs might be a risk factor for cirrhosis because of the marked impacts of elevated lipid metabolism, disruption of iron homeostasis and possibly, aggravated loss of liver functions


  1. Confessions of an Engineered Nanoparticle

https://pieceofmindful.com/2021/04/23/confessions-of-an-engineered-nanoparticle/#comment-170183

  1. Big Pharma Injecting Graphene Oxide As Adjuvant In COVID Jabs!

https://principia-scientific.com/big-pharma-injecting-graphene-oxide-as-adjuvant-in-covid-jabs/

  1. Magnetofection 2.4 (chemicell.com)

http://www.chemicell.com/products/magnetofection/docs/magnetofection_2_4.pdf

Magnetofection the new gene transfection technology – a novel, simple and highly efficient method to transfect cells in culture –PDF document

  1. Insights into the mechanism of magnetofection using MNPs-PEI/pDNA/free PEI magnetofectins

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/21807084/

Abstract:Magnetofection is an efficient new physical gene transfection technology. Despite its effective gene delivery capability, till now relatively little work has been conducted on the mechanism of magnetofection, especially the intracellular fates of the components of magnetofectins and their effects on magnetofection. In this study, we investigated the mechanism of magnetofection using magnetofectins that were prepared via electrostatic self-assembly of the three components: polyethyleneimine (PEI)-coated magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs-PEI), plasmid DNA (pDNA) and PEI in the free form (free PEI). TEM observation and agarose gel electrophoresis assays have indicated MNPs play the role of driving magnetofectins to the cell surface without entering into the nucleus. Confocal microscopic tracking of fluorescence-labeled PEI has shown that the free PEI (green) can be found in the nucleus but almost all of the MNPs-PEI (red) are confined in the cytoplasm in COS-7 cells 30 min post-transfection or in SPC-A1 cells 90 min post-transfection, implying that the pDNA/PEI complex must separate from MNPs-PEI before entering into the nucleus. In addition, reporter gene assays showed the magnetofectins, in which the free PEI was absent, failed to transfect SPC-A1 or COS-7 cell lines; and there was an optimal ratio of the constituents of magnectofectins to achieve optimal transfection efficiency by balancing stable complex formation and facile release of PEI/pDNA from the complex. In summary, our findings further the knowledge of magnetofection and can be helpful for the design and preparation of gene delivery vehicles for effective magnetofection.

  1. Genetically magnetic control of neural system via TRPV4 activation with magnetic nanoparticles

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1748013221001122

Abstract: In recent years, various kinds of nanomaterials based invasive or non-invasive deep neural stimulation tools are developed for modulating neural system and illuminating the relationship between neural circuits and specific behaviors. For better modulation of neural system and clinical application, the neural stimulation nanotools should be optimized. In this work, we demonstrated a novel non-invasive neural modulation approach relying on magnetic field, which is realized by modifying magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) with anti-His antibody and inserting His-tag at specific position of TRPV4 to target the activation of TRPV4 ion channel. The activated TRPV4 ion channel could induce the calcium influx by in vitro calcium imaging assay in cultured neurons. This study showed that this approach can improve the calcium transient compared with unmodified MNPs. Furthermore, this approach was confirmed in freely moving mice presenting valid magnetic control of rotation around the body-axis and freezing of gait. This work demonstrates that TRPV4 ion channel can be activated by MNPs based nanotool, which provides a new alternative way for achieving magnetic stimulation in deep-brain circuits. This work also can serve as a useful validation study for magnetogenetics.

  1. Exploring Biodigital Convergence

https://archive.is/d3dOt

What happens when biology and digital technology merge?

  1. ACROBiosystems SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) Spike protein RBD-coupled magnetic beads 

Manufacturer:  ACROBiosystems MBSK00210MG

Kits;10MG;The Antigen pre-Coupled magnetic beads are Coupled with Biotinylated protein onto streptavidin (SA) magnetic beads. Because Streptavidin (SA) has an extraordinarily high affinity for biotin with a dissociation constant (Kd) on the order of 10-14 mol/L, the Biotinylated protein can bind to the SA beads irreversibly. We provide the SARS-CoV-2 Spike protein RBD coupled magnetic beads, which could help you to capture the antibody or ACE-2 protein, and easily to follow up with other tests, such as immunocapture, biopanning and flow cytometry.;Immobilized 40 μg SARS-CoV-2 S protein RBD to 1mg Beads, can bind the Anti-SARS-CoV-2 Spike S1 Antibody with an EC50 of 0.8887 μg/mL (QC tested).;Immobilized 40 μg SARS-CoV-2 S protein RBD to 1mg Beads, can bind the Human ACE2, Fc Tag (AC2-H5257) with an EC50 of 1.008 μg/mL (QC tested).

  1. Role of Metallic Nanoparticles in Vaccinology: Implications for Infectious Disease Vaccine Development

https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fimmu.2017.00239/full

Extract: Subunit vaccines are safer but less immunogenic than live-attenuated vaccines or whole cell inactivated vaccines. Adjuvants are used to enhance and modulate antigen (Ag) immunogenicity, aiming to induce a protective and long-lasting immune response. Several molecules and formulations have been studied for their adjuvanticity, but only seven have been approved to formulate human vaccines. Metallic nanoparticles (MeNPs), particularly those containing gold and iron oxides, are widely used in medicine for diagnosis and therapy and have been used as carriers for drugs and vaccines. However, little is known about the immune response elicited by MeNPs or about their importance in the development of new vaccines. There is evidence that these particles display adjuvant characteristics, promoting cell recruitment, antigen-presenting cell activation, cytokine production, and inducing a humoral immune response. This review focuses on the characteristics of MeNPs that could facilitate the induction of a cellular immune response, particularly T-helper 1 and T-helper 17, and their potential functions as adjuvants for subunit vaccines.

  1. The Cyrus A Parsa Lawsuit

“The lawsuit is being filed on the behalf of the Worlds people by Cyrus A Parsa and The AI Organization on pure altruistic reasons to prevent harm to the worlds citizens, from his data sourced from investigating over 1,000 AI, Robotics, Bio-Engineering, 5G, Bio-Metric, and Big Tech Companies, including 500 Chinese Companies, compressed in the book Artificial Intelligence Dangers to Humanity”

  1. Magnetogenetics: remote non-invasive magnetic activation of neuronal activity with a magnetoreceptor

“Our newly invented magnetogenetics has several unique advantages over the decade-long still being optimized optogenetics: Magnetogenetics is noninvasive, remote, penetrative, uniform, and safe. Compared to the optic fiber used in optogenetics [16] and the electric wire assembled in deep-brain stimulation [40], there is no need for chronic surgical implantation of any invasive devices since the external magnetic fields can penetrate deeply into the intact mammalian brain or other biological systems”

  1. Patent Application Publication -Rothschild et al

https://patentimages.storage.googleapis.com/2a/69/27/bf279a306d1d21/US20210005224A1.pdf

A method is provided for using at least self – reporting and biometric data to determine a current state of a user . The method includes receiving first biometric data of the user ( e.g. , using a camera on a mobile device ) at a first period of time and self – reporting data shortly thereafter , where the first biometric data comprises at least changes in the user’s pupil in response to first visuals ( e.g. , a series of different light intensities , etc. ) ( e.g. , provided using a display on the mobile device ) and the self – reporting data comprises a state of the user , where the self – reporting data is linked to the first biometric data . The method further includes receiving sec ond biometric data at a second time and using the same , along with at least the first biometric data and self – reporting data , to determine ( e.g. , via AI , manually , etc. ) a state of the user at the second period of time.

  1. MAGNETOGENETICS, CO-FINANCED BY DARPA, GATES, ROCKEFELLERS, ZUCKERBERG! ISN’T THIS WHY VAXXERS TURN INTO FRIDGE DOORS AND MAGNETS STICK ON THEM?!

https://silview.media/2021/05/12/magnetogenetics-isnt-this-why-vaxxers-turn-into-fridge-doors-and-magnets-stick-on-them/


  1. Biocompatible N-acetyl cysteine reduces graphene oxide and persists at the surface as a green radical scavenger

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/30892320/

Abstract: We demonstrate that N-acetyl cysteine (NAC) reduces graphene oxide (GO) at room temperature. This represents a new green method to produce reduced GO (rGO). NAC adheres to the rGO surface as demonstrated by several spectroscopy techniques and avoids GO-mediated oxidation of glutathione. This method offers new opportunities for the production of green biocompatible rGO and NAC-based therapies.


  1. Improving Magnetofection of Magnetic Polyethylenimine Nanoparticles into MG-63 Osteoblasts Using a Novel Uniform Magnetic Field

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/30874913/


Abstract:This study aimed to improve the magnetofection of MG-63 osteoblasts by integrating the use of a novel uniform magnetic field with low molecular weight polyethylenimine modified superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (PEI-SPIO-NPs). The excellent characteristics of PEI-SPIO-NPs such as size, zeta potential, the pDNA binding and protective ability were determined to be suitable for gene delivery. The novel uniform magnetic field enabled polyethylenimine-modified superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles/pDNA complexes (PEI-SPIO-NPs/pDNA complexes) to rapidly and uniformly distribute on the surface of MG-63 cells, averting local transfection and decreasing disruption of the membrane caused by the centralization of positively charged PEI-SPIO-NPs, thereby increasing the effective coverage of magnetic gene carriers during transfection, and improving magnetofection efficiency. This innovative uniform magnetic field can be used to determine the optimal amount between PEI-SPIO-NPs and pDNA, as well as screen for the optimal formulation design of magnetic gene carrier under the homogenous conditions. Most importantly, the novel uniform magnetic field facilitates the transfection of PEI-SPIO-NPs/pDNA into osteoblasts, thereby providing a novel approach for the targeted delivery of therapeutic genes to osteosarcoma tissues as well as a reference for the treatment of other tumors.


  1. Remotely controlled chemomagnetic modulation of targeted neural circuits

https://www.nature.com/articles/s41565-019-0521-z#Abs1


Abstract: Connecting neural circuit output to behaviour can be facilitated by the precise chemical manipulation of specific cell populations1,2. Engineered receptors exclusively activated by designer small molecules enable manipulation of specific neural pathways3,4. However, their application to studies of behaviour has thus far been hampered by a trade-off between the low temporal resolution of systemic injection versus the invasiveness of implanted cannulae or infusion pumps2. Here, we developed a remotely controlled chemomagnetic modulation—a nanomaterials-based technique that permits the pharmacological interrogation of targeted neural populations in freely moving subjects. The heat dissipated by magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) in the presence of alternating magnetic fields (AMFs) triggers small-molecule release from thermally sensitive lipid vesicles with a 20 s latency. Coupled with the chemogenetic activation of engineered receptors, this technique permits the control of specific neurons with temporal and spatial precision. The delivery of chemomagnetic particles to the ventral tegmental area (VTA) allows the remote modulation of motivated behaviour in mice. Furthermore, this chemomagnetic approach activates endogenous circuits by enabling the regulated release of receptor ligands. Applied to an endogenous dopamine receptor D1 (DRD1) agonist in the nucleus accumbens (NAc), a brain area involved in mediating social interactions, chemomagnetic modulation increases sociability in mice. By offering a temporally precise control of specified ligand–receptor interactions in neurons, this approach may facilitate molecular neuroscience studies in behaving organisms.





  1. Scientists Developed Magnetic Nanoparticles that can Remotely Modulate Neural Circuits

https://www.labroots.com/trending/chemistry-and-physics/15530/scientists-developed-magnetic-nanoparticles-remotely-modulate-neural-circuits


Extract: A team of MIT scientists has constructed a type of heat-sensitive, magnetic nanoparticle that can deliver chemical stimulants deep into brain tissues and release them on demand, providing a new means to remotely modulate the behaviors of test subjects.Liposomal particles are tiny bubble-like structures often consisting of phospholipids bilayers. Due to their biocompatibility, ability to entrap a variety of small and large molecules, and versatility to adopt a wide range of physicochemical and biological properties, liposomes are a popular carrier in biomedical science, capable of delivering anything from plasmid DNA for gene editing, to cytotoxic chemo-agents in cancer therapy.


  1. Genetically targeted magnetic control of the nervous system

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/26950006/


Abstract: Optogenetic and chemogenetic actuators are critical for deconstructing the neural correlates of behavior. However, these tools have several limitations, including invasive modes of stimulation or slow on/off kinetics. We have overcome these disadvantages by synthesizing a single-component, magnetically sensitive actuator, “Magneto,” comprising the cation channel TRPV4 fused to the paramagnetic protein ferritin. We validated noninvasive magnetic control over neuronal activity by demonstrating remote stimulation of cells using in vitro calcium imaging assays, electrophysiological recordings in brain slices, in vivo electrophysiological recordings in the brains of freely moving mice, and behavioral outputs in zebrafish and mice. As proof of concept, we used Magneto to delineate a causal role of striatal dopamine receptor 1 neurons in mediating reward behavior in mice. Together our results present Magneto as an actuator capable of remotely controlling circuits associated with complex animal behaviors.


  1. TRPV4 is the temperature-sensitive ion channel of human sperm

https://elifesciences.org/articles/35853


Abstract: Ion channels control the ability of human sperm to fertilize the egg by triggering hyperactivated motility, which is regulated by membrane potential, intracellular pH, and cytosolic calcium. Previous studies unraveled three essential ion channels that regulate these parameters: (1) the Ca2+ channel CatSper, (2) the K+ channel KSper, and (3) the H+ channel Hv1. However, the molecular identity of the sperm Na+ conductance that mediates initial membrane depolarization and, thus, triggers downstream signaling events is yet to be defined. Here, we functionally characterize DSper, the Depolarizing Channel of Sperm, as the temperature-activated channel TRPV4. It is functionally expressed at both mRNA and protein levels, while other temperature-sensitive TRPV channels are not functional in human sperm. DSper currents are activated by warm temperatures and mediate cation conductance, that shares a pharmacological profile reminiscent of TRPV4. Together, these results suggest that TRPV4 activation triggers initial membrane depolarization, facilitating both CatSper and Hv1 gating and, consequently, sperm hyperactivation.


  1. Chapter 11Fertility and TRP Channels

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK476107/


Extract: Since their discovery in late 1970, transient receptor potential (TRP) channels have been implicated in a variety of cellular and physiological functions (Minke, 2010). The superfamily of TRP channels consists of nearly 30 members that are organized into seven major subgroups based on their specific function and sequence similarities (Owsianik et al., 2006Ramsey et al., 2006). With the exception of TRPN channels that are only found in invertebrates and fish, mammalian genomes contain representatives of all six subfamilies: (1) TRPV (vanilloid); (2) TRPC (canonical); (3) TRPM (melastatin); (4) TRPA (ankyrin); (5) TRPML (mucolipin); and (6) TRPP (polycystin). TRP channels play crucial regulatory roles in many physiological processes, including those associated with reproductive tissues. As calcium-permeable cation channels that respond to a variety of signals (Clapham et al., 2003Wu et al., 2010), TRP channels exert their role as sensory detectors in both male and female gametes, and play regulatory functions in germ cell development and maturation. Recent evidence obtained from Caenorhabditis elegans studies point to the importance of these proteins during fertilization where certain sperm TRP channels could migrate from a spermatozoon into an egg to ensure successful fertilization and embryo development. In this chapter we discuss how TRP channels can regulate both female and male fertility in different species and their specific roles.



  1. Biomedical

https://www.graphene.manchester.ac.uk/learn/applications/biomedical/

Graphene’s unique properties allow for ground-breaking biomedical applications. Targeted drug delivery; improved brain penetration; DIY health-testing kits and ‘smart’ implants.

  1. Selective activation of mechanosensitive ion channels using magnetic particles

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/18077244/

Abstract: This study reports the preliminary development of a novel magnetic particle-based technique that permits the application of highly localized mechanical forces directly to specific regions of an ion-channel structure. We demonstrate that this approach can be used to directly and selectively activate a mechanosensitive ion channel of interest, namely TREK-1. It is shown that manipulation of particles targeted against the extended extracellular loop region of TREK-1 leads to changes in whole-cell currents consistent with changes in TREK-1 activity. Responses were absent when particles were coated with RGD (Arg-Gly-Asp) peptide or when magnetic fields were applied in the absence of magnetic particles. It is concluded that changes in whole-cell current are the result of direct force application to the extracellular loop region of TREK-1 and thus these results implicate this region of the channel structure in mechano-gating. It is hypothesized that the extended loop region of TREK-1 may act as a tension spring that acts to regulate sensitivity to mechanical forces, in a nature similar to that described for MscL. The development of a technique that permits the direct manipulation of mechanosensitive ion channels in real time without the need for pharmacological drugs has huge potential benefits not only for basic biological research of ion-channel gating mechanisms, but also potentially as a tool for the treatment of human diseases caused by ion-channel dysfunction.

  1. Magnetogenetics: remote non-invasive magnetic activation of neuronal activity with a magnetoreceptor (2015)

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S2095927316302407

Abstract:Current neuromodulation techniques such as optogenetics and deep-brain stimulation are transforming basic and translational neuroscience. These two neuromodulation approaches are, however, invasive since surgical implantation of an optical fiber or wire electrode is required. Here, we have invented a non-invasive magnetogenetics that combines the genetic targeting of a magnetoreceptor with remote magnetic stimulation. The non-invasive activation of neurons was achieved by neuronal expression of an exogenous magnetoreceptor, an iron-sulfur cluster assembly protein 1 (Isca1). In HEK-293 cells and cultured hippocampal neurons expressing this magnetoreceptor, application of an external magnetic field resulted in membrane depolarization and calcium influx in a reproducible and reversible manner, as indicated by the ultrasensitive fluorescent calcium indicator GCaMP6s. Moreover, the magnetogenetic control of neuronal activity might be dependent on the direction of the magnetic field and exhibits on-response and off-response patterns for the external magnetic field applied. The activation of this magnetoreceptor can depolarize neurons and elicit trains of action potentials, which can be triggered repetitively with a remote magnetic field in whole-cell patch-clamp recording. In transgenic Caenorhabditis elegans expressing this magnetoreceptor in myo-3-specific muscle cells or mec-4-specific neurons, application of the external magnetic field triggered muscle contraction and withdrawal behavior of the worms, indicative of magnet-dependent activation of muscle cells and touch receptor neurons, respectively. The advantages of magnetogenetics over optogenetics are its exclusive non-invasive, deep penetration, long-term continuous dosing, unlimited accessibility, spatial uniformity and relative safety. Like optogenetics that has gone through decade-long improvements, magnetogenetics, with continuous modification and maturation, will reshape the current landscape of neuromodulation toolboxes and will have a broad range of applications to basic and translational neuroscience as well as other biological sciences. We envision a new age of magnetogenetics is coming.

  1. Engineered protein crystals make cells magnetic

https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2019/09/190925083802.htm

Summary: If scientists could give living cells magnetic properties, they could perhaps manipulate cellular activities with external magnetic fields. But previous attempts to magnetize cells by producing iron-containing proteins inside them have resulted in only weak magnetic forces. Now, researchers have engineered genetically encoded protein crystals that can generate magnetic forces many times stronger than those already reported.


  1. Manipulative magnetic nanomedicine: the future of COVID-19 pandemic/endemic therapy

https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/17425247.2021.1860938

Extract : Nanobiotechnology is emerging very promising to investigate novel methodologies for managing COVID-19 pandemic/endemic successfully [2,5]. In this direction, experts have explored the opto-electro-magnetic nanosystem to detect the SARS-CoV-2 virus using a biosensing approach. Such optical, electrical, or magnetic biosensors function based on geno-sensing and immune-sensing has detected the SARS-CoV-2 virus selectively at a very low level [7,8]. These efficient-miniaturized biosensors can be operated using a smartphone and promoted for clinical application for early-stage diagnostics of COVID-19 infection. 

  1. NHS calls for ban on toy neodymium magnets amid child safety fears

https://www.bbc.co.uk/news/uk-57290239

  1. Could Magnetic Hydrogel Explain the COVID Vax Magnet Phenomenon?

https://healthimpactnews.com/2021/could-magnetic-hydrogel-explain-the-covid-vax-magnet-phenomenon/

  1. Increased Serum Levels of Hepcidin and Ferritin Are Associated with Severity of COVID-19

https://www.medscimonit.com/abstract/indexMobile/idArt/926178

Background: The aim of this study was to assess the diagnostic utility of iron homeostasis determinations for prediction of severity of COVID-19.

  1. Engineered protein crystals make cells magnetic

https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2019/09/190925083802.htm

Summary: If scientists could give living cells magnetic properties, they could perhaps manipulate cellular activities with external magnetic fields. But previous attempts to magnetize cells by producing iron-containing proteins inside them have resulted in only weak magnetic forces. Now, researchers have engineered genetically encoded protein crystals that can generate magnetic forces many times stronger than those already reported.

  1. Wireless control of cellular function by activation of a novel protein responsive to electromagnetic fields

https://www.nature.com/articles/s41598-018-27087-9

Abstract: The Kryptopterus bicirrhis (glass catfish) is known to respond to electromagnetic fields (EMF). Here we tested its avoidance behavior in response to static and alternating magnetic fields stimulation. Using expression cloning we identified an electromagnetic perceptive gene (EPG) from the K. bicirrhis encoding a protein that responds to EMF. This EPG gene was cloned and expressed in mammalian cells, neuronal cultures and in rat’s brain. Immunohistochemistry showed that the expression of EPG is confined to the mammalian cell membrane. Calcium imaging in mammalian cells and cultured neurons expressing EPG demonstrated that remote activation by EMF significantly increases intracellular calcium concentrations, indicative of cellular excitability. Moreover, wireless magnetic activation of EPG in rat motor cortex induced motor evoked responses of the contralateral forelimb in vivo. Here we report on the development of a new technology for remote, non-invasive modulation of cell function.

  1. Biosynthesis of magnetic nanoparticles from nano-degradation products revealed in human stem cells

https://www.nature.com/articles/s41598-018-27087-9

Abstract: While magnetic nanoparticles offer exciting possibilities for stem cell imaging or tissue bioengineering, their long-term intracellular fate remains to be fully documented. Besides, it appears that magnetic nanoparticles can occur naturally in human cells, but their origin and potentially endogenous synthesis still need further understanding. In an effort to explore the life cycle of magnetic nanoparticles, we investigated their transformations upon internalization in mesenchymal stem cells and as a function of the cells’ differentiation status (undifferentiated, or undergoing adipogenesis, osteogenesis, and chondrogenesis). Using magnetism as a fingerprint of the transformation process, we evidenced an important degradation of the nanoparticles during chondrogenesis. For the other pathways, stem cells were remarkably “remagnetized” after degradation of nanoparticles. This remagnetization phenomenon is the direct demonstration of a possible neosynthesis of magnetic nanoparticles in cellulo and could lay some foundation to understand the presence of magnetic crystals in human cells. The neosynthesis was shown to take place within the endosomes and to involve the H-subunit of ferritin. Moreover, it appeared to be the key process to avoid long-term cytotoxicity (impact on differentiation) related to high doses of magnetic nanoparticles within stem cells.

  1. Effects of PEGylation on biomimetic synthesis of magnetoferritin nanoparticles

https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s11051-017-3805-y

Abstract : Recent studies have demonstrated that ferrimagnetic magnetoferritin nanoparticles are a promising novel magnetic nanomaterial in biomedical applications, including biocatalysis, imaging, diagnostics, and tumor therapy. Here we investigated the PEGylation of human H-ferritin (HFn) proteins and the possible influence on biomimetic synthesis of magnetoferritin nanoparticles. The outer surface of HFn proteins was chemically modified with different PEG molecular weights (PEG10K and PEG20K) and different modification ratios (HFn subunit:PEG20K = 1:1, 1:2, 1:4). The PEGylated HFn proteins were used for biomimetic synthesis of ferrimagnetic magnetoferritin nanoparticles. We found that, compared with magnetoferritin using non-PEGylated HFn protein templates, the synthesized magnetoferritin using the PEGylated HFn protein templates possessed larger magnetite cores, higher magnetization and relaxivity values, and improved thermal stability. These results suggest that the PEGylation of H-ferritin may improve the biomineralization of magnetoferritin nanoparticles and enhance their biomedical applications.

  1. Biosynthesis of magnetic nanoparticles from nanodegradation products revealed in human stem cells

https://www.pnas.org/content/pnas/early/2019/02/12/1816792116.full.pdf

Extract: While magnetic nanoparticles offer exciting possibilities for stem cell imaging or tissue bioengineering, their long-term intracellular fate remains to be fully documented. Besides, it appears that magnetic nanoparticles can occur naturally in human cells, but their origin and potentially endogenous synthesis still need further understanding. In an effort to explore the life cycle of magnetic nanoparticles, we investigated their transformations upon internalization in mesenchymal stem cells and as a function of the cells’ differentiation status (undifferentiated, or undergoing adipogenesis, osteogenesis, and chondrogenesis). Using magnetism as a fingerprint of the transformation process, we evidenced an important degradation of the nanoparticles during chondrogenesis. For the other pathways, stem cells were remarkably “remagnetized” after degradation of nanoparticles. This remagnetization phenomenon is the direct demonstration of a possible neosynthesis of magnetic nanoparticles in cellulo and could lay some foundation to understand the presence of magnetic crystals in human cells. The neosynthesis was shown to take place within the endosomes and to involve the H-subunit of ferritin. Moreover, it appeared to be the key process to avoid long-term cytotoxicity (impact on differentiation) related to high doses of magnetic nanoparticles within stem cells.

  1. Dr. Stefano Montanari: Try to give an explanation to the strange magnetism in the arm of the vaccinated

https://grandeinganno.it/2021/05/24/dott-stefano-montanari-prova-a-dare-una-spiegazione-allo-strano-magnetismo-nel-braccio-dei-vaccinati/

Extract: It is called magneto genetics and is the new frontier for curing diseases. A biological technique that involves the use of  magnetic fields  to remotely control cellular activity. According to the studies of the New nanodiagnostics these long needle-like crystals rich in iron are present inside the anti covid vaccines. Using the magnets you could control the cells that contain these crystals. That is why, as you can see from this video, at the injection site of the vaccine, a small magnet sticks easily.

  1. What is optogenetics?

https://www.weforum.org/agenda/2016/10/what-is-optogenetics/#optogenetics

Extract: Our brains are made up of billions of cells called neurons, and those neurons communicate with each other through neural circuits.Optogenetics allows us, for the first time, to manipulate the messages that those neurons send to each other.

  1. Magnetoferritin: Process, Prospects, and Their Biomedical Applications

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6567256/

Abstract: Ferritin is a spherical iron storage protein composed of 24 subunits and an iron core. Using biomimetic mineralization, magnetic iron oxide can be synthesized in the cavity of ferritin to form magnetoferritin (MFt). MFt, also known as a superparamagnetic protein, is a novel magnetic nanomaterial with good biocompatibility and flexibility for biomedical applications. Recently, it has been demonstrated that MFt had tumor targetability and a peroxidase-like catalytic activity. Thus, MFt, with its many unique properties, provides a powerful platform for tumor diagnosis and therapy. In this review, we discuss the biomimetic synthesis and biomedical applications of MFt.


  1. Magbeads 101: A guide to choosing and using magnetic beads

https://www.cytivalifesciences.com/en/us/news-center/magnetic-beads-a-simple-guide-10001

Extract : Magnetic beads (or superparamagnetic particles) are versatile little tools for easy and effective isolation of biomolecules. Use this guide to compare the different surface chemistries and find the type for your application.

  1. Introduction to biosensors (2016)

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/27365030/

Abstract: Biosensors are nowadays ubiquitous in biomedical diagnosis as well as a wide range of other areas such as point-of-care monitoring of treatment and disease progression, environmental monitoring, food control, drug discovery, forensics and biomedical research. A wide range of techniques can be used for the development of biosensors. Their coupling with high-affinity biomolecules allows the sensitive and selective detection of a range of analytes. We give a general introduction to biosensors and biosensing technologies, including a brief historical overview, introducing key developments in the field and illustrating the breadth of biomolecular sensing strategies and the expansion of nanotechnological approaches that are now available.

  1. Magnetic Bead Technology – University of Massachusetts-Lowell- Introduction to biosensors

http://faculty.uml.edu/xwang/16.541/2011/presentation%202/PRESENTATION%202%20FINAL_biosensor%20Sharma.pptx

Powerpoint presentation

  1. Covid-19: Schedule breast screening before vaccine or 4 to 6 weeks after to avoid false positives, says guidance

https://www.bmj.com/content/372/bmj.n617/rr

  1. Magnetism in drug delivery: The marvels of iron oxides and substituted ferrites nanoparticles

https://www.researchgate.net/publication/341416644_Magnetism_in_drug_delivery_The_marvels_of_iron_oxides_and_substituted_ferrites_nanoparticles


Abstract: In modern drug delivery, seeking a drug delivery system (DDS) with a modifiable skeleton for proper targeting of loaded actives to specific sites in the body is of extreme importance for a successful therapy. Magnetically guided nanosystems, where particles such as iron oxides are guided to specific regions using an external magnetic field, can provide magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) while delivering a therapeutic payload at the same time, which represents a breakthrough in disease therapy and make MNPs excellent candidates for several biomedical applications. In this review, magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) along with their distinguishable properties, including pharmacokinetics and toxicity, especially in cancer therapy will be discussed. The potential perspective of using other elements within the MNP system to reduce toxicity, improve pharmacokinetics, increase the magnetization ability, improve physical targeting precision and/or widen the scope of its biomedical application will be also discussed

  1. Protein Engineering and Selection Using Yeast Surface Display

https://www.researchgate.net/publication/278044689_Protein_Engineering_and_Selection_Using_Yeast_Surface_Display

Abstract: Yeast surface display is a powerful technology for engineering a broad range of protein scaffolds. This protocol describes the process for de novo isolation of protein binders from large combinatorial libraries displayed on yeast by using magnetic bead separation followed by flow cytometry-based selection. The biophysical properties of isolated single clones are subsequently characterized, and desired properties are further enhanced through successive rounds of mutagenesis and flow cytometry selections, resulting in protein binders with increased stability, affinity, and specificity for target proteins of interest.

  1. Does High Iron Push a Person With Pathology Into Dementia?

https://www.alzforum.org/news/research-news/does-high-iron-push-person-pathology-dementia

Iron is an essential nutrient, but like any good thing, too much of it may do harm. According to an autopsy study published February 18 in Molecular Psychiatry, people who had had dementia and moderate to high burdens of plaques and tangles had more iron in their temporal cortices than those with less pathology. Does this iron do anything? It correlated with cognitive decline in the years prior to death, but whether it accelerated that decline is unclear. The researchers, led by Ashley Bush of the University of Melbourne and Martha Morris of Rush University Medical Center in Chicago, suggest that brain iron kills neurons via ferroptosis, a cell-death pathway driven by reactive forms of the element.

  1. Magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles for imaging, targeting and treatment of primary and metastatic tumors of the brain

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/31923537/

Abstract: Magnetic nanoparticles in general, and iron oxide nanoparticles in particular, have been studied extensively during the past 20 years for numerous biomedical applications. The main applications of these nanoparticles are in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), magnetic targeting, gene and drug delivery, magnetic hyperthermia for tumor treatment, and manipulation of the immune system by macrophage polarization for cancer treatment. Recently, considerable attention has been paid to magnetic particle imaging (MPI) because of its better sensitivity compared to MRI. In recent years, MRI and MPI have been combined as a dual or multimodal imaging method to enhance the signal in the brain for the early detection and treatment of brain pathologies. Because magnetic and iron oxide nanoparticles are so diverse and can be used in multiple applications such as imaging or therapy, they have attractive features for brain delivery. However, the greatest limitations for the use of MRI/MPI for imaging and treatment are in brain delivery, with one of these limitations being the brain-blood barrier (BBB). This review addresses the current status, chemical compositions, advantages and disadvantages, toxicity and most importantly the future directions for the delivery of iron oxide based substances across the blood-brain barrier for targeting, imaging and therapy of primary and metastatic tumors of the brain.

  1. Biosynthesis of magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles: a review

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/33156459/

Abstract: Nanoparticles promise to revolutionize the way we think of ordinary materials thanks to the new features such small structures exhibit which include strength, durability, optical and magnetics properties. Magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (IONPs) are a prominent class of NMs because of their potential application in magnetic separation, hyperthermia, targeted drug delivery, and catalysis. Most synthetic nanoparticulate platforms rely on the use of tough chemical procedures associated with unfriendly, harmful and costly reactants. For this reason, bio-inspired approaches have become the most successful alternatives to fabricate nanomaterials in an “eco-friendly” manner, and many bio-protocols that make use of substrates from plants and microorganisms have been successfully applied in the synthesis of magnetic IONPs. In this review, the main biosynthesis protocols applied in the synthesis of iron oxide nanoparticles are discussed. A discussion on the challenges for a second stage perspective which would be a large scale production is also given.

  1. Can a multibillion-dollar biotech prove its RNA drugs are safe for a rare disease? (2017)

https://www.sciencemag.org/news/2017/12/can-multibillion-dollar-biotech-prove-its-rna-drugs-are-safe-rare-disease

Extract: Six-year-old Moderna has promised to engineer its way out of those traps. Researchers there have altered the chemistry of the mRNA itself so it doesn’t set off receptors on roving immune cells. The company has begun human testing of its mRNA drugs for cardiovascular disease and cancer, and for vaccines against the flu, Zika, and chikungunya viruses. And it’s not alone. Germany-based biotech companies CureVac and BioNTech are also testing several mRNA-based cancer vaccines in clinical trials.


  1. RNA-loaded Nanoparticles Breach Blood-brain Barrier to Deliver Drugs

https://www.americanlaboratory.com/Specialty/Food/617-News/575856-RNA-loaded-Nanoparticles-Breach-Blood-brain-Barrier-to-Deliver-Drugs/

Extract: The rapidly expanding class of RNA-based drugs are breaking therapeutic barriers by making personalized medicine a reality. These promising drugs are cost-effective, easy to manufacture and have the potential to change the standard of care for many diseases. However, they have not been useful in getting through to the well-protected brain to treat tumors or other maladies—until now.

  1. Why Are Cytotoxic Carbon NanoTubes or NanoWorms Found In mRNA Vaccines?

https://www.drrobertyoung.com/post/why-are-cytotoxic-carbon-nanotubes-or-nanoworms-found-in-mrna-vaccines

Extract : Based upon the microscopic evaluation presented in the above video it is my professional opinion that what is being viewed is a MWCNTs or a carbon nanotube which is highly cytotoxic or an acidifier to blood, interstitial fluid compartments and intracellular fluids, which may lead to cell membrane degeneration and genetic mutation of the body cells putting at risk the healthy state of all glands, organs and tissues in humans and animals.

  1. Mechanisms Of Power – The Tavistock Institute Of Human Relations : Mass Brainwashing & Propaganda! (3 years ago)

https://steemit.com/conspiracy/@jockey/mechanisms-of-power-the-tavistock-institute-of-human-relations-mass-brainwashing-and-propaganda

Extract: This is the first post of my new series where we will be looking into the various mechanisms of power used against us by the people who run our world

  1. Comparison Between Two Models for Interactions Between Electric and Magnetic Fields and Proteins in Cell Membranes

https://www.liebertpub.com/doi/abs/10.1089/ees.2009.0014

Abstract: Investigations on exposure to electromagnetic have generated conflicting results both in epidemiological and laboratory studies, leaving their possible health consequences largely inconclusive. One of the well-reported reasons for the discrepancies is that there is no generally accepted theory to describe the interactions between the very weak electromagnetic fields and the living cells. This work presents a critical evaluation of three theories that describes the effects of weak electromagnetic fields on channel proteins in the cell membrane. The forced ion vibration model appears to explain the opening of ion channel proteins for exposures to low-frequency magnetic fields in the mili-Tesla range. No resonance frequencies or amplitude window effects are predicted in this method. We identify inconsistencies in the forced vibration model and show that the environmental magnetic fields that would be required to elicit opening of channel proteins are much stronger than predicted by the proposers of this model. The Ion Parametric Resonance model predicts a biological response at well-defined resonance frequencies for magnetic fields exceeding about 10 micro-Tesla. The oscillating magnetic field is assumed to act on proteins together with the earth’s static magnetic field. This model predicts amplitude windows. We explain how a purely magnetic interaction, where in a two-stage ion magnetic resonance model, the conformation of a protein is changed under the influence of ions attached to its surface, which in turn, changes the function of the protein, can overcome the inherent signal-to-noise problem caused by electric thermal noise. The hydrogen nuclear polarization model predicts a biological response for oscillating magnetic field strengths above 0.1 micro-Tesla. The presence of a static magnetic field is required, and biological effects can be expected for frequencies below a few hundred hertz. All models except the forced vibration model can be applied for amplitude modulated microwaves.

  1. Feasibility of implantable iron oxide nanoparticles in detecting brain activity-proof of concept in a rat model

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/33636503/

Background: Precise detection of zones of increased brain activity is a crucial aspect in the delineation of the cortical region responsible for epilepsy (epileptic focus). When possible, removal of this area can lead to improved control of epilepsy or even its cure. This study explores a new method of detection of electrical brain activity based on the surgical implantation of iron oxide superparamagnetic nanoparticles (SPIONs). By their magnetic nature, SPIONs tend to aggregate in the presence of magnetic fields. This study aims to demonstrate if brain’s magnetic fields could change the aggregation status of SPIONs in a rat model.

  1. Using superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles to enhance bioavailability of quercetin in the intact rat brain

https://bmcpharmacoltoxicol.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s40360-018-0249-7

Background: Quercetin (QT) as a bioactive flavonoid has a potential therapeutic activity for numerous neuronal injuries and neurodegenerative diseases. However, the low absorption rate of QT, especially through the blood-brain barrier, restricts its bioactivity in the body. The current research took the advantage of superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs) to enhance the bioavailability of quercetin

  1. External magnetic field promotes homing of magnetized stem cells following subcutaneous injection

https://bmcmolcellbiol.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s12860-017-0140-1

Background: Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are multipotent stromal cells that have the ability to self-renew and migrate to sites of pathology. In vivo tracking of MSCs provides insights into both, the underlying mechanisms of MSC transformation and their potential as gene delivery vehicles. The aim of our study was to assess the ability of superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs)-labeled Wharton’s Jelly of the human umbilical cord-derived MSCs (WJ-MSCs) to carry the green fluorescent protein (GFP) gene to cutaneous injury sites in a murine model.


  1. Effect of electromagnetic field exposure on the reproductive system

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3341445/

Abstract: The safety of human exposure to an ever-increasing number and diversity of electromagnetic field (EMF) sources both at work and at home has become a public health issue. To date, many in vivo and in vitro studies have revealed that EMF exposure can alter cellular homeostasis, endocrine function, reproductive function, and fetal development in animal systems. Reproductive parameters reported to be altered by EMF exposure include male germ cell death, the estrous cycle, reproductive endocrine hormones, reproductive organ weights, sperm motility, early embryonic development, and pregnancy success. At the cellular level, an increase in free radicals and [Ca2+]i may mediate the effect of EMFs and lead to cell growth inhibition, protein misfolding, and DNA breaks. The effect of EMF exposure on reproductive function differs according to frequency and wave, strength (energy), and duration of exposure. In the present review, the effects of EMFs on reproductive function are summarized according to the types of EMF, wave type, strength, and duration of exposure at cellular and organism levels. 

  1. Polyethylene Glycol Coated Magnetic Nanoparticles: Hybrid Nanofluid Formulation, Properties and Drug Delivery Prospects

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/33572244/

Abstract: Magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) are widely used materials for biomedical applications owing to their intriguing chemical, biological and magnetic properties. The evolution of MNP based biomedical applications (such as hyperthermia treatment and drug delivery) could be advanced using magnetic nanofluids (MNFs) designed with a biocompatible surface coating strategy. This study presents the first report on the drug loading/release capability of MNF formulated with methoxy polyethylene glycol (referred to as PEG) coated MNP in aqueous (phosphate buffer) fluid. We have selected MNPs (NiFe2O4, CoFe2O4 and Fe3O4) coated with PEG for MNF formulation and evaluated the loading/release efficacy of doxorubicin (DOX), an anticancer drug. We have presented in detail the drug loading capacity and the time-dependent cumulative drug release of DOX from PEG-coated MNPs based MNFs. Specifically, we have selected three different MNPs (NiFe2O4, CoFe2O4 and Fe3O4) coated with PEG for the MNFs and compared their variance in the loading/release efficacy of DOX, through experimental results fitting into mathematical models. DOX loading takes the order in the MNFs as CoFe2O4 > NiFe2O4 > Fe3O4. Various drug release models were suggested and evaluated for the individual MNP based NFs. While the non-Fickian diffusion (anomalous) model fits for DOX release from PEG coated CoFe2O4, PEG coated NiFe2O4 NF follows zero-order kinetics with a slow drug release rate of 1.33% of DOX per minute. On the other hand, PEG coated NiFe2O4 follows zero-order DOX release. Besides, several thermophysical properties and magnetic susceptibility of the MNFs of different concentrations have been studied by dispersing the MNPs (NiFe2O4, CoFe2O4 and Fe3O4) in the base fluid at 300 K under ultrasonication. This report on the DOX loading/release capability of MNF will set a new paradigm in view that MNF can resolve problems related to the self-heating of drug carriers during mild laser treatment with its thermal conducting properties.


  1. Continuous production of magnetic iron oxide nanocrystals by oxidative precipitation

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1385894720305842

Abstract: Continuous processes are always preferred over batch ones when reproducible and scalable industrial procedures are needed. This work illustrates the production of magnetite nanoparticles by oxidative precipitation in aqueous media, following a continuous approach that offers additional advantages. Particularly, the developed reaction setup succeeds (i) the complete separation of the green rust’s precipitation from Fe3O4 nucleation, (ii) the achievement of constant concentrations in all ionic and solid forms throughout the production line when steady-state is reached, what means constant supersaturation from both the formation of green rust and Fe3O4, and (iii) the possibility to control critical parameters, such as OH− excess over the initial stoichiometric Fe(OH)2 precipitation, through on-line regulation of synthesis parameters such as the reactor’s pH and redox potential. Importantly, continuous flow synthesis of Fe3O4 nanoparticles enables high production capacities, low energy consumption and proportional scale-up at any volume. As a proof of concept, obtained nanoparticles were evaluated according to their magnetic response as potential magnetic hyperthermia agents indicating significant improvement of heating efficiency that goes up to 1.5–2 kW/gFe3O4 for both smaller (~40 nm) and larger (~200 nm) particles.

  1. Recent Advances on Magnetic Sensitive Hydrogels in Tissue Engineering

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7068712/#__ffn_sectitle

Abstract: Tissue engineering is a promising strategy for the repair and regeneration of damaged tissues or organs. Biomaterials are one of the most important components in tissue engineering. Recently, magnetic hydrogels, which are fabricated using iron oxide-based particles and different types of hydrogel matrices, are becoming more and more attractive in biomedical applications by taking advantage of their biocompatibility, controlled architectures, and smart response to magnetic field remotely. In this literature review, the aim is to summarize the current development of magnetically sensitive smart hydrogels in tissue engineering, which is of great importance but has not yet been comprehensively viewed.

  1. COVID-19 vaccine affects imaging results, researchers warn

https://www.auntminnie.com/index.aspx?sec=ser&sub=def&pag=dis&ItemID=131655

February 25, 2021 — Researchers are warning that the COVID-19 vaccine can manifest on imaging in ways that appear to be disease, according to two studies published February 24 in the American Journal of Roentgenology and Radiology.As more people get vaccinated for COVID-19, radiologists must be familiar with how the vaccine may affect imaging results, wrote Dr. Shabnam Mortazavi of the University of California, Los Angeles. Mortazavi conducted a study that included data from 23 women who underwent breast imaging after being vaccinated.”Practice recommendations are needed to prevent excessive follow-up imaging and potential biopsy of COVID-19 associate axillary adenopathy,” she noted.


  1. Coronavirus Disease (COVID-19) Vaccination Associated Axillary Adenopathy: Imaging Findings and Follow-Up Recommendations in 23 Women

https://www.ajronline.org/doi/10.2214/AJR.21.25651

Extract: We report 23 women with axillary adenopathy on breast imaging after recent coronavirus disease (COVID-19) vaccination. A total of 13% were symptomatic (axillary lump), 43% were undergoing screening; and 43% undergoing diagnostic imaging for other reasons. BI-RADS 2 was assigned in one woman, BI-RADS 3 in 21 (ultrasound in 4-24 weeks), and BI-RADS 4 in one. Radiologist familiarity and evidence-based guidelines are needed to avoid follow-up imaging and biopsies for reactive adenopathy after COVID-19 vaccination.

  1. Lymphadenopathy in COVID-19 Vaccine Recipients: Diagnostic Dilemma in Oncologic Patients

https://pubs.rsna.org/doi/10.1148/radiol.2021210275

Abstract: Five cases of axillary lymphadenopathy are presented, which occurred after COVID-19 vaccination and mimicked metastasis in a vulnerable oncologic patient group. Initial radiologic diagnosis raised concerns for metastasis. However, further investigation revealed that patients received COVID-19 vaccinations in the ipsilateral arm prior to imaging. In two cases, lymph node biopsy results confirmed vaccination-related reactive lymphadenopathy. Ipsilateral axillary swelling or lymphadenopathy was reported based on symptoms and physical examination in COVID-19 vaccine trials. Knowledge of the potential for COVID-19 vaccine–related ipsilateral adenopathy is necessary to avoid unnecessary biopsy and change in therapy.

  1. Engineered protein crystals make cells magnetic

https://www.acs.org/content/acs/en/pressroom/newsreleases/2019/september/engineered-protein-crystals-make-cells-magnetic.html

Extract: If scientists could give living cells magnetic properties, they could perhaps manipulate cellular activities with external magnetic fields. But previous attempts to magnetize cells by producing iron-containing proteins inside them have resulted in only weak magnetic forces. Now, researchers reporting in ACS’ Nano Letters have engineered genetically encoded protein crystals that can generate magnetic forces many times stronger than those already reported. The new area of magnetogenetics seeks to use genetically encoded proteins that are sensitive to magnetic fields to study and manipulate cells. Many previous approaches have featured a natural iron-storage protein called ferritin, which can self-assemble into a “cage” that holds as many as 4,500 iron atoms. But even with this large iron-storage capacity, ferritin cages in cells generate magnetic forces that are millions of times too small for practical applications. To drastically increase the amount of iron that a protein assembly can store, Bianxiao Cui and colleagues wanted to combine the iron-binding ability of ferritin with the self-assembly properties of another protein, called Inkabox-PAK4cat, that can form huge, spindle-shaped crystals inside cells. The researchers wondered if they could line the hollow interiors of the crystals with ferritin proteins to store larger amounts of iron that would generate substantial magnetic forces.To make the new crystals, the researchers fused genes encoding ferritin and Inkabox-PAK4cat and expressed the new protein in human cells in a petri dish. The resulting crystals, which grew to about 45 microns in length (or about half the diameter of a human hair) after 3 days, did not affect cell survival. The researchers then broke open the cells, isolated the crystals and added iron, which enabled them to pull the crystals around with external magnets. Each crystal contained about five billion iron atoms and generated magnetic forces that were nine orders of magnitude stronger than single ferritin cages. By introducing crystals that were pre-loaded with iron to living cells, the researchers could move the cells around with a magnet. However, they were unable to magnetize the cells by adding iron to crystals already growing in cells, possibly because the iron levels in cells were too low. This is an area that requires further investigation, the researchers say.

  1. Virus-Sized Transistors (2011)

https://www.harvardmagazine.com/2011/01/virus-sized-transistors


Extract: IMAGINE BEING ABLE to signal an immune cell to generate antibodies that would fight bacteria or even cancer. That fictional possibility is now a step closer to reality with the development of a bio-compatible transistor the size of a virus. Hyman professor of chemistry Charles Lieber and his colleagues used nanowires to create a transistor so small that it can be used to enter and probe cells without disrupting the intracellular machinery. These nanoscale semiconductor switches could even be used to enable two-way communication with individual cells. Lieber has worked for the past decade on the design and synthesis of nanoscale parts that will enable him to build tiny electronic devices (see “Liquid Computing,” November-December 2001, page 20). Devising a biological interface, in which a nanoscale device can actually communicate with a living organism, has been an explicit goal from the beginning, but has proven tricky. At its simplest, the problem was inserting a transistor constructed on a flat plane (think of the surface of a computer chip) into a three-dimensional object: a cell perhaps 10 microns in size. Merely piercing the cell was not enough, because transistors need a source wire from which electrons flow and a drain wire through which they are discharged. 

  1. Harvard chemistry chief’s arrest over China links shocks researchers

https://www.nature.com/articles/d41586-020-00291-2

Lieber, who is known for engineering new nanomaterials and developing their applications in medicine and biology, was arrested on 28 January. Two days later, a federal judge approved his release on cash bail of US$1 million.

  1. Stanford single-dose nanoparticle vaccine for COVID-19

https://news.stanford.edu/2021/01/05/nanoparticle-vaccine-covid-19/

Extract: Before the pandemic, the lab of Stanford University biochemist Peter S. Kim focused on developing vaccines for HIV, Ebola and pandemic influenza. But, within days of closing their campus lab space as part of COVID-19 precautions, they turned their attention to a vaccine for SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes COVID-19. Although the coronavirus was outside the lab’s specific area of expertise, they and their collaborators have managed to construct and test a promising vaccine candidate. “Our goal is to make a single-shot vaccine that does not require a cold-chain for storage or transport. If we’re successful at doing it well, it should be cheap too,” said Kim, who is the Virginia and D. K. Ludwig Professor of Biochemistry. “The target population for our vaccine is low- and middle-income countries.” Their vaccine, detailed in a paper published Jan. 5 in ACS Central Science, contains nanoparticles studded with the same proteins that comprise the virus’s distinctive surface spikes. In addition to being the reason why these are called coronaviruses – corona is Latin for “crown” – these spikes facilitate infection by fusing to a host cell and creating a passageway for the viral genome to enter and hijack the cell’s machinery to produce more viruses. The spikes can also be used as antigens, which means their presence in the body is what can trigger an immune response. Nanoparticle vaccines balance the effectiveness of viral-based vaccines with the safety and ease-of-production of subunit vaccines. Vaccines that use viruses to deliver the antigen are often more effective than vaccines that contain only isolated parts of a virus. However, they can take longer to produce, need to be refrigerated and are more likely to cause side effects. Nucleic acid vaccines – like the Pfizer and Moderna mRNA vaccines that have recently been authorized for emergency use by the FDA – are even faster to produce than nanoparticle vaccines but they are expensive to manufacture and may require multiple doses. Initial tests in mice suggest that the Stanford nanoparticle vaccine could produce COVID-19 immunity after just one dose. The researchers are also hopeful that it could be stored at room temperature and are investigating whether it could be shipped and stored in a freeze-dried, powder form. By comparison, the vaccines that are farthest along in development in the United States all need to be stored at cold temperatures, ranging from approximately 8 to -70 degrees Celsius (46 to -94 degrees Fahrenheit).“This is really early stage and there is still lots of work to be done,” said Abigail Powell, a former postdoctoral scholar in the Kim lab and lead author of the paper. “But we think it is a solid starting point for what could be a single-dose vaccine regimen that doesn’t rely on using a virus to generate protective antibodies following vaccination.”

The researchers are continuing to improve and fine-tune their vaccine candidate, with the intention of moving it closer to initial clinical trials in humans.

  1. A Single Immunization with Spike-Functionalized Ferritin Vaccines Elicits Neutralizing Antibody Responses against SARS-CoV-2 in Mice

https://pubs.acs.org/doi/10.1021/acscentsci.0c01405

Abstract: The development of a safe and effective SARS-CoV-2 vaccine is a public health priority. We designed subunit vaccine candidates using self-assembling ferritin nanoparticles displaying one of two multimerized SARS-CoV-2 spikes: full-length ectodomain (S-Fer) or a C-terminal 70 amino-acid deletion (SΔC-Fer). Ferritin is an attractive nanoparticle platform for production of vaccines, and ferritin-based vaccines have been investigated in humans in two separate clinical trials. We confirmed proper folding and antigenicity of spike on the surface of ferritin by cryo-EM and binding to conformation-specific monoclonal antibodies. After a single immunization of mice with either of the two spike ferritin particles, a lentiviral SARS-CoV-2 pseudovirus assay revealed mean neutralizing antibody titers at least 2-fold greater than those in convalescent plasma from COVID-19 patients. Additionally, a single dose of SΔC-Fer elicited significantly higher neutralizing responses as compared to immunization with the spike receptor binding domain (RBD) monomer or spike ectodomain trimer alone. After a second dose, mice immunized with SΔC-Fer exhibited higher neutralizing titers than all other groups. Taken together, these results demonstrate that multivalent presentation of SARS-CoV-2 spike on ferritin can notably enhance elicitation of neutralizing antibodies, thus constituting a viable strategy for single-dose vaccination against COVID-19.

  1. Ferritin nanoparticle-based SARS-CoV-2 RBD vaccine induces a persistent antibody response and long-term memory in mice

https://www.nature.com/articles/s41423-021-00643-6

Extract: To date, the global coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has resulted in more than 90 million people infected and over 2 million deaths. A safe and effective vaccine is in high demand. For an effective vaccine, antibody persistence and long-term memory are favorable features. The poor antibody persistence after natural SARS-CoV-2 infection raised concerns about whether a vaccine could induce a long-lasting antibody response and whether a memory recall response would be induced upon reinfection.1,2 Currently, over 200 vaccine candidates have been documented, some of which have advanced to clinical trials with encouraging results. However, to the best of our knowledge, the extent of antibody persistence and long-term memory post vaccination is still unclear. Here, we report that a ferritin nanoparticle (NP)-based SARS-CoV-2 receptor-binding domain (RBD) vaccine induced an efficient antibody response in mice that lasted for at least 7 months post immunization. A high number of memory B cells (MBCs) were maintained and recalled significantly upon antigen challenge.

  1. Covid vaccines’ being developed using iron-storing ferritin protein to manipulate brain function magnetically (These connections between humans and electromagnetic fields have been in my books for decades.)

https://davidicke.com/2021/05/20/covid-vaccines-being-developed-using-iron-storing-ferritin-protein-to-manipulate-brain-function-magnetically-these-connections-between-humans-and-electromagnetic-fields-have-been-in-my-books-for/

The development of a safe and effective SARS-CoV-2 vaccine is a public health priority. We designed subunit vaccine candidates using self-assembling ferritin nanoparticles displaying one of two multimerized SARS-CoV-2 spikes: full-length ectodomain (S-Fer) or a C-terminal 70 amino-acid deletion (SΔC-Fer). Ferritin is an attractive nanoparticle platform for production of vaccines, and ferritin-based vaccines have been investigated in humans in two separate clinical trials. We confirmed proper folding and antigenicity of spike on the surface of ferritin by cryo-EM and binding to conformation-specific monoclonal antibodies. After a single immunization of mice with either of the two spike ferritin particles, a lentiviral SARS-CoV-2 pseudovirus assay revealed mean neutralizing antibody titers at least 2-fold greater than those in convalescent plasma from COVID-19 patients. Additionally, a single dose of SΔC-Fer elicited significantly higher neutralizing responses as compared to immunization with the spike receptor binding domain (RBD) monomer or spike ectodomain trimer alone. After a second dose, mice immunized with SΔC-Fer exhibited higher neutralizing titers than all other groups. Taken together, these results demonstrate that multivalent presentation of SARS-CoV-2 spike on ferritin can notably enhance elicitation of neutralizing antibodies, thus constituting a viable strategy for single-dose vaccination against COVID-19.

Read full study – https://pubs.acs.org/doi/10.1021/acscentsci.0c01405

  1. What Is Cytokine Storm Syndrome

https://www.verywellhealth.com/cytokine-storm-syndrome-4842383

Cytokine storm syndrome refers to a group of related medical conditions in which the immune system is producing too many inflammatory signals, sometimes leading to organ failure and death.

It is not considered a disease in itself, but rather a serious medical issue that can happen because of several different underlying issues. It is also sometimes called cytokine release syndrome, CRS, or just cytokine storm.

  1. Physiological saline containing graphene dispersion and corona virus vaccine using the same

https://patents.google.com/patent/KR20210028065A/en

Abstract:The present invention relates to an injection solution placed in blood vessels and subcutaneous tissues of the human body, physiological saline solution, glucose solution, and Ringer’s solution for the purpose of curing diseases.
The graphene-dispersed physiological saline solution of the present invention and a coronavirus vaccine using the same are intended to be used for each disease including dementia disease, Parkinson’s disease, Lou Gehrig’s disease, and Huntington’s disease.
The physiological saline solution containing graphene of the present invention and a corona virus vaccine using the same is intended to be used as a therapeutic agent for viruses such as MERS, SARS, and corona.
Graphene powder having a size of 0.2 nm or less is dispersed in a means used as an injection solution such as injection solution, Ringer solution, physiological saline solution, and glucose solution used in conventional hospitals and used as a therapeutic agent.
Ringer’s solution, in which graphene powder is dispersed, is injected into the human body where the virus has penetrated and spreads evenly throughout the body. When the virus and graphene powder meet, the graphene powder and the virus are attracted and adhered to each other with nano-cohesive force.
If graphene powder adheres to the body and spikes of the virus, the virus does not function properly and cannot multiply and eventually dies.
In the present invention, by mixing the coronavirus cultured in physiological saline containing graphene dispersed and repeating the dispersion process, the graphene nanopowder infiltrates into each microscopic organ of the corona virus’s spike protrusion to reduce the function of the corona virus, or It stops functioning or kills some coronaviruses, resulting in a coronavirus vaccine.

  1. Graphene’s health effects summarised in new guide

https://ec.europa.eu/environment/integration/research/newsalert/pdf/graphenes_health_effects_summarised_in_new_guide_48si8_en.pdf

Almost all carbon nanomaterials are based on variations of graphene, a one atom thick honeycomb-like arrangement of carbon atoms. Graphene can be stacked, wrapped or rolled, to form graphite, football-like ‘buckyballs’ or carbon nanotubes (CNTs), respectively. These materials have unique properties which may make them useful in industrial processes and consumer technologies, such as flexible display screens, carbon-based microchips and medical applications. Additionally, graphene is also being investigated for environmental applications, such as cleaning up hazardous materials and pollutants in contaminated waters. These properties can be further modified by attaching different chemical groups to the graphene surface. While the potential use and safety of CNTs has been investigated for some time, much less is known about graphene, partly because of early difficulties in increasing its production and because it is in an early stage of development. Now, with increasing research, the adoption of different types of graphene materials in different industries will increase the likelihood of human exposure to this material.

  1. A Realistic Assessment of Graphene Toxicity:
    An Interview with Andrew Maynard

https://www.thegraphenecouncil.org/page/GrapheneToxicity

The hot-button issue during the last ten years of nanotechology’s development has been determining how toxic and dangerous nanomaterials are to our health and environment.

  1. Nanoscience and nanotechnologies: opportunities and uncertainties (2004)

https://royalsociety.org/-/media/Royal_Society_Content/policy/publications/2004/9693.pdf

Nanoscience and nanotechnologies are widely seen as having huge potential to bring benefits to many areas of research and application, and are attracting rapidly increasing investments from Governments and from businesses in many parts of the world. At the same time, it is recognised that their application may raise new challenges in the safety, regulatory or ethical domains that will require societal debate. In June 2003 the UK Government therefore commissioned the Royal Society and the Royal Academy of Engineering to carry out this independent study into current and future developments in nanoscience and nanotechnologies and their impacts.


  1. Graphene microsheets enter cells through spontaneous membrane penetration at edge asperities and corner sites

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/23840061/

Abstract: Understanding and controlling the interaction of graphene-based materials with cell membranes is key to the development of graphene-enabled biomedical technologies and to the management of graphene health and safety issues. Very little is known about the fundamental behavior of cell membranes exposed to ultrathin 2D synthetic materials. Here we investigate the interactions of graphene and few-layer graphene (FLG) microsheets with three cell types and with model lipid bilayers by combining coarse-grained molecular dynamics (MD), all-atom MD, analytical modeling, confocal fluorescence imaging, and electron microscopic imaging. The imaging experiments show edge-first uptake and complete internalization for a range of FLG samples of 0.5- to 10-μm lateral dimension. In contrast, the simulations show large energy barriers relative to kBT for membrane penetration by model graphene or FLG microsheets of similar size. More detailed simulations resolve this paradox by showing that entry is initiated at corners or asperities that are abundant along the irregular edges of fabricated graphene materials. Local piercing by these sharp protrusions initiates membrane propagation along the extended graphene edge and thus avoids the high energy barrier calculated in simple idealized MD simulations. We propose that this mechanism allows cellular uptake of even large multilayer sheets of micrometer-scale lateral dimension, which is consistent with our multimodal bioimaging results for primary human keratinocytes, human lung epithelial cells, and murine macrophages.

  1. Investigation of acute effects of graphene oxide on wastewater microbial community: A case study

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S0304389413002513



Abstract: The market for graphene-based products, such as graphene oxide (GO), is projected to reach nearly $675 million by 2020, hence it is expected that large quantities of graphene-based wastes will be generated by then. Wastewater treatment plants will be one of the ultimate repositories for these wastes. Efficient waste treatment relies heavily on the functions of diverse microbial communities. Therefore, systematic investigation of any potential toxic effects of GO in wastewater microbial communities is essential to determine the potential adverse effects and the fate of these nanomaterials in the environment. In the present study, we investigate the acute toxicity, i.e. short-term and high load, effect of GO on the microbial functions related to the biological wastewater treatment process. The results showed that toxic effects of GO on microbial communities were dose dependent, especially in concentrations between 50 and 300 mg/L. Bacterial metabolic activity, bacterial viability, and biological removal of nutrients, such as organics, nitrogen and phosphorus, were significantly impacted by the presence of GO in the activated sludge. Furthermore, the presence of GO deteriorated the final effluent quality by increasing the water turbidity and reducing the sludge dewaterability. Microscopic techniques confirmed penetration and accumulation of GO inside the activated sludge floc matrix. Results demonstrated that the interaction of GO with wastewater produced significant amount of reactive oxygen species (ROS), which could be one of the responsible mechanisms for the toxic effect of GO.

  1. INBRAIN Neuroelectronics Secures $17 Million in Series A Funding for First AI-Powered Graphene-Brain Interface

https://www.businesswire.com/news/home/20210330005388/en/INBRAIN-Neuroelectronics-Secures-17-Million-in-Series-A-Funding-for-First-AI-Powered-Graphene-Brain-Interface

Funding enables company to advance first-in-human studies for its flagship product, a less-invasive neuromodulation device for treating neurological conditions using artificial intelligence and graphene electrodes.

  1. Why is Graphene Transparent?

Graphene is always in the news now a days and its key features are that it is; very strong, conductive and transparent. It is so transparent that each layer of graphene will only absorb 2% of Light passing through it. But what is it about the structure of Graphene which makes it (almost) transparent?

https://physics.stackexchange.com/questions/150847/why-is-graphene-transparent#150874

  1. How ‘transparent’ is graphene?

https://news.mit.edu/2012/how-transparent-is-graphene-1204

MIT researchers find that adding a coating of graphene has little effect on how a surface interacts with liquids — except in extreme cases. The amazing electrical, optical and strength properties of graphene, a single-atom-thick layer of carbon, have been extensively researched over the last decade. Recently, the material has been studied as a coating that might confer electrical conductivity while maintaining other properties of the underlying material.

  1. Breakdown in the Wetting Transparency of Graphene

https://journals.aps.org/prl/abstract/10.1103/PhysRevLett.109.176101

Abstract: We develop a theory to model the van der Waals interactions between liquid and graphene, including quantifying the wetting behavior of a graphene-coated surface. Molecular dynamics simulations and contact angle measurements were also carried out to test the theory. We show that graphene is only partially transparent to wetting and that the predicted highest attainable contact angle of water on a graphene-coated surface is 96°. Our findings reveal a more complex picture of wetting on graphene than what has been reported recently as complete “wetting transparency.”


  1. Physicists discover important new property for graphene

https://news.mit.edu/2021/physicists-discover-important-new-property-graphene-0208

Extract: MIT researchers and colleagues recently discovered an important — and unexpected — electronic property of graphene, a material discovered only about 17 years ago that continues to surprise scientists with its interesting physics. The work, which involves structures composed of atomically thin layers of materials that are also biocompatible, could usher in new, faster information-processing paradigms. One potential application is in neuromorphic computing, which aims to replicate the neuronal cells in the body responsible for everything from behavior to memories.


  1. Magic-angle” trilayer graphene may be a rare, magnet-proof superconductor

https://news.mit.edu/2021/magic-trilayer-graphene-superconductor-magnet-0721

Extract : MIT physicists have observed signs of a rare type of superconductivity in a material called magic-angle twisted trilayer graphene. In a study appearing today in Nature, the researchers report that the material exhibits superconductivity at surprisingly high magnetic fields of up to 10 Tesla, which is three times higher than what the material is predicted to endure if it were a conventional superconductor.


  1. Custom-made MIT tool probes materials at the nanoscale

https://news.mit.edu/2021/custom-made-s-snom-probes-materials-nanoscale-0713

Extract: An MIT physicist has built a new instrument of interest to MIT researchers across a wide range of disciplines because it can quickly and relatively inexpensively determine a variety of important characteristics of a material at the nanoscale. It’s capable of not only determining internal properties of a material, such as how that material’s electrical or optical conductivity changes over exquisitely short distances, but also visualizing individual molecules, like proteins.


  1. Physicists create tunable superconductivity in twisted graphene “nanosandwich”

https://news.mit.edu/2021/physicists-create-tunable-superconductivity-twisted-graphene-nanosandwich-0201

When two sheets of graphene are stacked atop each other at just the right angle, the layered structure morphs into an unconventional superconductor, allowing electric currents to pass through without resistance or wasted energy.

  1. Controlling 2-D magnetism with stacking order

https://news.mit.edu/2019/controlling-2d-magnetism-stacking-order-0930

Researchers led by MIT Department of Physics Professor Pablo Jarillo-Herrero last year showed that rotating layers of hexagonally structured graphene at a particular “magic angle” could change the material’s electronic properties from an insulating state to a superconducting state. Now researchers in the same group and their collaborators have demonstrated that in a different ultra-thin material that also features a honeycomb-shaped atomic structure — chromium trichloride (CrCl3) — they can alter the material’s magnetic properties by shifting the stacking order of layers.

  1. Human virus detection with graphene-based materials

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/32750677/

Abstract :Our recent experience of the COVID-19 pandemic has highlighted the importance of easy-to-use, quick, cheap, sensitive and selective detection of virus pathogens for the efficient monitoring and treatment of virus diseases. Early detection of viruses provides essential information about possible efficient and targeted treatments, prolongs the therapeutic window and hence reduces morbidity. Graphene is a lightweight, chemically stable and conductive material that can be successfully utilized for the detection of various virus strains. The sensitivity and selectivity of graphene can be enhanced by its functionalization or combination with other materials. Introducing suitable functional groups and/or counterparts in the hybrid structure enables tuning of the optical and electrical properties, which is particularly attractive for rapid and easy-to-use virus detection. In this review, we cover all the different types of graphene-based sensors available for virus detection, including, e.g., photoluminescence and colorimetric sensors, and surface plasmon resonance biosensors. Various strategies of electrochemical detection of viruses based on, e.g., DNA hybridization or antigen-antibody interactions, are also discussed. We summarize the current state-of-the-art applications of graphene-based systems for sensing a variety of viruses, e.g., SARS-CoV-2, influenza, dengue fever, hepatitis C virus, HIV, rotavirus and Zika virus. General principles, mechanisms of action, advantages and drawbacks are presented to provide useful information for the further development and construction of advanced virus biosensors. We highlight that the unique and tunable physicochemical properties of graphene-based nanomaterials make them ideal candidates for engineering and miniaturization of biosensors.


  1. Potential of graphene-based materials to combat COVID-19: properties, perspectives, and prospects

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7577689/

Abstract: Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), a new virus in the coronavirus family that causes coronavirus disease (COVID-19), emerges as a big threat to the human race. To date, there is no medicine and vaccine available for COVID-19 treatment. While the development of medicines and vaccines are essentially and urgently required, what is also extremely important is the repurposing of smart materials to design effective systems for combating COVID-19. Graphene and graphene-related materials (GRMs) exhibit extraordinary physicochemical, electrical, optical, antiviral, antimicrobial, and other fascinating properties that warrant them as potential candidates for designing and development of high-performance components and devices required for COVID-19 pandemic and other futuristic calamities. In this article, we discuss the potential of graphene and GRMs for healthcare applications and how they may contribute to fighting against COVID-19.


  1. Functionalized graphene oxide serves as a novel vaccine nano-adjuvant for robust stimulation of cellular immunity

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/26814441/

Abstract: Benefiting from their unique physicochemical properties, graphene derivatives have attracted great attention in biomedicine. In this study, we carefully engineered graphene oxide (GO) as a vaccine adjuvant for immunotherapy using urease B (Ure B) as the model antigen. Ure B is a specific antigen for Helicobacter pylori, which is a class I carcinogen for gastric cancer. Polyethylene glycol (PEG) and various types of polyethylenimine (PEI) were used as coating polymers. Compared with single-polymer modified GOs (GO-PEG and GO-PEI), certain dual-polymer modified GOs (GO-PEG-PEI) can act as a positive modulator to promote the maturation of dendritic cells (DCs) and enhance their cytokine secretion through the activation of multiple toll-like receptor (TLR) pathways while showing low toxicity. Moreover, this GO-PEG-PEI can serve as an antigen carrier to effectively shuttle antigens into DCs. These two advantages enable GO-PEG-PEI to serve as a novel vaccine adjuvant. In the subsequent in vivo experiments, compared with free Ure B and clinically used aluminum-adjuvant-based vaccine (Alum-Ure B), GO-PEG-PEI-Ure B induces stronger cellular immunity via intradermal administration, suggesting promising applications in cancer immunotherapy. Our work not only presents a novel, highly effective GO-based vaccine nano-adjuvant, but also highlights the critical roles of surface chemistry for the rational design of nano-adjuvants.

  1. Recent progress of graphene oxide as a potential vaccine carrier and adjuvant

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/32531395/

Abstract: Vaccine is one of the most effective strategies for preventing and controlling infectious diseases and some noninfectious diseases, especially cancers. Adjuvants and carriers have been appropriately added to the vaccine formulation to improve the immunogenicity of the antigen and induce long-lasting immunity. However, there is an urgent need to develop new all-purpose adjuvants because some adjuvants approved for human use have limited functionality. Graphene oxide (GO), widely employed for the delivery of biomolecules, excels in loading and delivering antigen and shows the potentiality of activating the immune system. However, GO aggregates in biological liquid and induces cell death, and it also exhibits poor biosolubility and biocompatibility. To address these limitations, various surface modification protocols have been employed to integrate aqueous compatible substances with GO to effectively improve its biocompatibility. More importantly, these modifications render functionalized-GO with superior properties as both carriers and adjuvants. Herein, the recent progress of physicochemical properties and surface modification strategies of GO for its application as both carriers and adjuvants is reviewed. STATEMENT OF SIGNIFICANCE: Due to its unique physicochemical properties, graphene oxide is widely employed in medicine for purposes of photothermal treatment of cancer, drug delivery, antibacterial therapy, and medical imaging. Our work describes the surface modification of graphene oxide and for the first time summarizes that functionalized graphene oxide serves as a vaccine carrier and shows significant adjuvant activity in activating cellular and humoral immunity. In the future, it is expected to be introduced into vaccine research to improve the efficacy of vaccines.

  1. Graphene can be used to detect COVID-19 quickly, accurately

https://phys.org/news/2021-06-graphene-covid-quickly-accurately.html

Extract: Researchers at the University of Illinois Chicago have successfully used graphene—one of the strongest, thinnest known materials—to detect the SARS-CoV-2 virus in laboratory experiments. The researchers say the discovery could be a breakthrough in coronavirus detection, with potential applications in the fight against COVID-19 and its variants.

  1. Graphene toxicity as a double-edged sword of risks and exploitable opportunities: a critical analysis of the most recent trends and developments

https://iopscience.iop.org/article/10.1088/2053-1583/aa5476

Extract: Increased production volumes and a broadening application spectrum of graphene have raised concerns about its potential adverse effects on human health. Numerous reports demonstrate that graphene irrespective of its particular form exerts its effects on a widest range of living organisms, including prokaryotic bacteria and viruses, plants, micro- and macro-invertebrates, mammalian and human cells and whole animals in vivo. However, the available experimental data is frequently a matter of significant divergence and even controversy. Therefore, we provide here a critical analysis of the most recent (2015–2016) reports accumulated in the graphene-related materials biocompatibility and toxicology field in order to elucidate the cutting edge achievements, emerging trends and future opportunities in the area. Experimental findings from the diverse in vitro and in vivo model systems are analysed in the context of the most likely graphene exposure scenarios, such as respiratory inhalation, ingestion route, parenteral administration and topical exposure through the skin. Key factors influencing the toxicity of graphene and its complex derivatives as well as potential risk mitigation approaches exploiting graphene physicochemical properties, surface modifications and possible degradation pathways are also discussed along with its emerging applications for healthcare, diagnostics and innovative therapeutic approaches.

  1. Toxicity of graphene in normal human lung cells (BEAS-2B).

https://europepmc.org/article/MED/21485826

Abstract: Graphite nanomaterials such as thermally exfoliated graphite oxide (GO) are versatile in many applications. However, little is known about its effects on biological systems. In this study we characrerized the GO using dynamic light scattering (DLS) along with the toxicological aspects related to cytotoxicity and apoptosis in normal human lung cells (BEAS-2B). A significant concentration and time dependent decrease in cell viability was observed at different concentrations (10-100 microg/ml) by the MTT assay after 24 and 48 h of exposure and significant increase of early and late apoptotic cells was observed as compared to control cells. Our study demonstrates that GO induces cytotoxicity and apoptosis in human lung cells.

  1. New Graphene Sensors Could Provide Unprecedented Insights into Brain Structure

https://scitechdaily.com/new-graphene-sensors-provide-unprecedented-insights-brain-structure/

Extract :New nanotechnology funded by DARPA’s RE-NET program and developed by researchers at the University of Wisconsin at Madison enables monitoring and stimulation of neurons using optical and electronic methods simultaneously.

  1. Brains Improved by Graphene Are on the Horizon

https://spectrum.ieee.org/nanoclast/semiconductors/materials/brains-improved-by-graphene-are-on-the-horizon

While graphene has been tapped to deliver on everything from electronics to optoelectronics, it’s a bit harder to picture how it may offer a key tool for addressing neurological damage and disorders. But that’s exactly what researchers have been looking at lately because of the wonder material’s conductivity and transparency.

In the most recent development, a team from Europe has offered a deeper understanding of how graphene can be combined with neurological tissue and, in so doing, may have not only given us an additional tool for neurological medicine but also provided a tool for gaining insights into other biological processes.

  1. Designing next-generation neural interfaces with graphene

https://www.nanowerk.com/spotlight/spotid=48123.php

Extract: In a previous Nanowerk Spotlight (“Nanotechnology for neural interfaces“) we looked at the use of nanotechnologies in the field of brain-machine interfaces, their comprehensive design principle is to augment or restore one or more of the three interrelated biological complications that arise from neural impairment: sensory malfunction, loss of motor control, or disease-elicited intellectual changes.
All currently used neural interface devices are designed to perform a single function: either record activity or electrically stimulate tissue.
  1. Smart grapheme-brain interface gets funding

https://www.smart2zero.com/news/smart-graphene-brain-interface-gets-funding

Extract: Medical device company INBRAIN Neuroelectronics has announced that it has secured $16.8 million in Series A funding for its AI-powered graphene-brain interface.

The company, whose product is offered as a disruptive system for treating epilepsy and Parkinson’s disease, says the funding will enable it to advance first-in-human studies for its flagship product – a less-invasive neuromodulation device for treating neurological conditions using artificial intelligence and graphene electrodes.

  1. Elon Musk’s Neuralink is being outperformed by this Spanish graphene startup

https://sifted.eu/articles/neuralink-competitor-inbrain/

Extract: In February, Elon Musk told the world that his brain-computer interface company Neuralink had wired up a monkey to play video games with its mind. Unsurprisingly, given the US billionaire specialises in viral moments like these, the announcement made a splash across the world. 

But one Spanish startup was not so impressed, having spent the last eight years developing a specialised neural implant made of graphene — which it believes vastly outperforms Musk’s Neuralink.

  1. Inbrain Neuro Electronics

https://inbrain-neuroelectronics.com/


  1. Synthesis and Toxicity of Graphene Oxide Nanoparticles: A Literature Review of In Vitro and In Vivo Studies

https://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2021/5518999/

Abstract: Nanomaterials have been widely used in many fields in the last decades, including electronics, biomedicine, cosmetics, food processing, buildings, and aeronautics. The application of these nanomaterials in the medical field could improve diagnosis, treatment, and prevention techniques. Graphene oxide (GO), an oxidized derivative of graphene, is currently used in biotechnology and medicine for cancer treatment, drug delivery, and cellular imaging. Also, GO is characterized by various physicochemical properties, including nanoscale size, high surface area, and electrical charge. However, the toxic effect of GO on living cells and organs is a limiting factor that limits its use in the medical field. Recently, numerous studies have evaluated the biocompatibility and toxicity of GO in vivo and in vitro. In general, the severity of this nanomaterial’s toxic effects varies according to the administration route, the dose to be administered, the method of GO synthesis, and its physicochemical properties. This review brings together studies on the method of synthesis and structure of GO, characterization techniques, and physicochemical properties. Also, we rely on the toxicity of GO in cellular models and biological systems. Moreover, we mention the general mechanism of its toxicity.

  1. BRAIN 2025 Report

https://braininitiative.nih.gov/strategic-planning/brain-2025-report

Extract: The human brain is the source of our thoughts, emotions, perceptions, actions, and memories; it confers on us the abilities that make us human, while simultaneously making each of us unique. Over recent years, neuroscience has advanced to the level that we can envision a comprehensive understanding of the brain in action, spanning molecules, cells, circuits, systems, and behavior. This vision, in turn, inspired The BRAIN Initiative®. On April 2, 2013, President Obama launched The BRAIN Initiative® to “accelerate the development and application of new technologies that will enable researchers to produce dynamic pictures of the brain that show how individual brain cells and complex neural circuits interact at the speed of thought.” In response to this Grand Challenge, the National Institutes of Health (NIH) convened a working group of the Advisory Committee to the Director, NIH, to develop a rigorous plan for achieving this scientific vision. This report presents the findings and recommendations of the working group, including the scientific background and rationale for The BRAIN Initiative® as a whole and for each of seven major goals articulated in the report. In addition, we include specific deliverables, timelines, and cost estimates for these goals as requested by the NIH Director.


  1. IT’S REAL: Science paper documents “self-assembled magnetic nanosystems” for cybernetic biocircuitry interface and control systems in humans, including “DNA hydrogel” tech


https://www.naturalnews.com/2021-07-20-science-paper-documents-self-assembled-magnetic-nanosystems-for-cybernetic-biocircuitry-interface.html

Extract: The average person living today has little idea how far the development of self-assembling nanotech biocircuits has progressed. So-called “fact-checkers” (professional propagandists and liars) deliberately mislead people into thinking there’s no such thing as a self-assembling graphene-based biocircuitry system that could be feasibly injected into people and called a “vaccine,” but the published scientific literature lays out a comprehensive, well-documented body of research that shows this technology is quite real… and has been tested in biological systems for at least two decades.

  1. Without these lipid shells, there would be no mRNA vaccines for COVID-19


https://cen.acs.org/pharmaceuticals/drug-delivery/Without-lipid-shells-mRNA-vaccines/99/i8?ref=search_results

Extract:This year, hundreds of millions of people will receive shots of the Pfizer-BioNTech or Moderna vaccines for COVID-19. The crucial ingredient in each injection is mRNA, short-lived strands of genetic material that prompt our cells to start making SARS-CoV-2 proteins, which in turn help our immune systems develop antibodies that prevent future infections. Thanks to decades of scientific perseverance, billions of dollars of investment in the technology, and previous work on coronaviruses, the vaccine makers were able to design their vaccines and prove their safety and efficacy in under a year.

  1. Picture-Perfect Particles Enhance MRI Signal

https://cen.acs.org/articles/90/web/2012/04/Picture-Perfect-Particles-Enhance-MRI.html?ref=search_results

Extract: By stuffing magnetic nanoparticles into giant lipid vesicles, scientists have tracked single cells with magnetic resonance imaging (Anal. Chem., DOI: 10.1021/ac2031354). The technique, they say, is easy and causes little harm to the cells.With MRI, researchers would like to pinpoint specific cells in a living organism and watch them in real time. This information could help them understand the progression of disease cells or the fate of treatments such as implanted stem cells.

  1. Magnetic Field Triggers Liposome Release

https://cen.acs.org/articles/89/i12/Magnetic-Field-Triggers-Liposome-Release.html?ref=search_results

Extract: Using confocal laser scanning microscopy, researchers in Europe have determined the release mechanism of a small fluorescent molecule from a lipid vesicle in a low-frequency magnetic field (J. Phys. Chem. Lett., DOI: 10.1021/jz2000936). Because they are biocompatible and can carry a variety of compounds, lipid vesicles are promising drug delivery vehicles. By adding magnetic nanoparticles to the vesicles’ lipid bilayers, scientists can induce liposomes to discharge their small-molecule payloads with an applied alternating magnetic field. In the past, researchers have investigated drug release from lipid vesicles with high-frequency fields (10–500 kHz) that heat the magnetic particles and trigger drug delivery. Low-frequency fields (less than 10 kHz), however, would be safer for in vivo applications. Piero Baglioni of the University of Florence, in Italy, and coworkers report that a 0.2-kHz field leaves magnetic liposomes intact but still causes release of a fluorescent dye through bilayer pore formation, which is promoted by mechanical vibration of cobalt ferrite nanoparticles. The method developed to monitor this model system, the researchers write, can be used to study the release kinetics of drugs, as well as to characterize cell membrane perturbations

  1. Core-shell structured polyethylene glycol functionalized graphene for energy-storage polymer dielectrics: Combined mechanical and dielectric performances

https://www.sinopeg.com/core-shell-structured-polyethylene-glycol-functionalized-graphene-for-energy-storage-polymer-dielectrics-combined-mechanical-and-dielectric-performances_n28

Extract :Graphene, as the thinnest, strongest and stiffest material and arranged in a honeycomb pattern structure with sp2-hybridized carbon, finds more potential applications in modern industry than other carbonaceous allotropes; in pristine form, it is also an excellent heat and electric conductor . However, the major obstacle in utilizing graphene, particularly for electronic applications, is its insolubility in the fully reduced state due to the strong affinity between the graphene sheets. In the present study, they synthesized for the first time a polydispersed graphene with desirable electric conductivity by covalent functionalization with single terminal aminated polyethylene glycol monomethyl ether (PEG-NH2). The PEG-NH2 grafted graphene (PEG@GO) was then reduced by hydrazine hydrate to PEG@rGO and subsequently incorporated into epoxy resin by a solution mixing method. The PEG@rGO with a“core-shell”structure exhibited homogeneous dispersion in epoxy and also effectively reduced the dielectric loss, hence contributing excellent dielectric properties and mechanical strength to the final PEG@rGO/epoxy nanocomposites.


  1. Phytotoxicity of Graphene Family Nanomaterials and Its Mechanisms: A Review

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/31119125/

Abstract: Graphene family nanomaterials (GFNs) have experienced significant development in recent years and have been used in many fields. Despite the benefits, they bring to society and the economy, their potential for posing environmental and health risks should also be considered. The increasing release of GFNs into the ecosystem is one of the key environmental problems that humanity is facing. Although most of these nanoparticles are present at low concentrations, many of them raise considerable toxicological concerns, particularly regarding their accumulation in plants and the consequent toxicity introduced at the bottom of the food chain. Here, we review the recent progress in the study of toxicity caused by GFNs to plants, as well as its influencing factors. The phytotoxicity of GFNs is mainly manifested as a delay in seed germination and a severe loss of morphology of the plant seedling. The potential mechanisms of phytotoxicity were summarized. Key mechanisms include physical effects (shading effect, mechanical injury, and physical blockage) and physiological and biochemical effects (enhancement of reactive oxygen species (ROS), generation and inhibition of antioxidant enzyme activities, metabolic disturbances, and inhibition of photosynthesis by reducing the biosynthesis of chlorophyll). In the future, it is necessary to establish a widely accepted phytotoxicity evaluation system for safe manufacture and use of GFNs.

Also see: https://patents.google.com/patent/US3613992A/en

  1. WO2020160397 – METHODS OF PREPARING LIPID NANOPARTICLES

https://patentscope.wipo.int/search/en/detail.jsf?docId=WO2020160397

Abstract: The present disclosure provides methods of producing lipid nanoparticle (LNP) formulations and the produced LNP formulations thereof. The present disclosure also provides therapeutic and diagnostic uses related to the produced LNP formulations.

  1. Without these lipid shells, there would be no mRNA vaccines for COVID-19

https://cen.acs.org/pharmaceuticals/drug-delivery/Without-lipid-shells-mRNA-vaccines/99/i8

Extract : Messenger RNA (mRNA) is having a moment. This year, hundreds of millions of people will receive shots of the Pfizer-BioNTech or Moderna vaccines for COVID-19. The crucial ingredient in each injection is mRNA, short-lived strands of genetic material that prompt our cells to start making SARS-CoV-2 proteins, which in turn help our immune systems develop antibodies that prevent future infections. Thanks to decades of scientific perseverance, billions of dollars of investment in the technology, and previous work on coronaviruses, the vaccine makers were able to design their vaccines and prove their safety and efficacy in under a year…Over more than 3 decades, promising lipids studied in the lab often failed to live up to their potential when tested in animals or humans. Positively charged lipids are inherently toxic, and companies struggled for years before landing on formulations that were safe and effective. When injected intravenously, the particles invariably accumulated in the liver, and delivery to other organs is still an obstacle. Reliably manufacturing consistent LNPs was another challenge, and producing the raw materials needed to make the particles is a limiting factor in the production of COVID-19 vaccines today.

  1. Reduced graphene oxide–silver nanoparticle nanocomposite: a potential anticancer nanotherapy

https://www.dovepress.com/getfile.php?fileID=27376

Background: Graphene and graphene-based nanocomposites are used in various research areas including sensing, energy storage, and catalysis. The mechanical, thermal, electrical, and biological properties render graphene-based nanocomposites of metallic nanoparticles useful for several biomedical applications. Epithelial ovarian carcinoma is the fifth most deadly cancer in women; most tumors initially respond to chemotherapy, but eventually acquire chemoresistance. Consequently, the development of novel molecules for cancer therapy is essential. This study was designed to develop a simple, non-toxic, environmentally friendly method for the synthesis of reduced graphene oxide–silver (rGO–Ag) nanoparticle nanocomposites using Tilia amurensis plant extracts as reducing and stabilizing agents. The anticancer properties of rGO–Ag were evaluated in ovarian cancer cells

  1. Magnetism Plays Key Roles in DARPA Research to Develop Brain-Machine Interface without Surgery

https://magneticsmag.com/magnetism-plays-key-roles-in-darpa-research-to-develop-brain-machine-interface-without-surgery/

Extract:Some of the most exotic research involving magnetism is sponsored by the U.S. Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency, known as DARPA. One of their programs, literally, boggles the mind as it delves into areas once considered the realm of science fiction and could lead to new medical breakthroughs.Under its Next-Generation Nonsurgical Neurotechnology (N3) program, scientists at prestigious research labs are exploring how to make wearable brain-machine interfaces that could ultimately enable diverse national security applications such as control of active cyber defense systems and swarms of unmanned aerial vehicles, or teaming with computer systems to multitask during complex missions. 

  1. ALISON MCDOWELL | GRAPHENE WORLD ORDER, THE BIO-SURVEILLANCE STATE & THE BETTER STORY

https://www.thehighersidechats.com/alison-mcdowell-graphene-world-order-the-bio-surveillance-state-the-better-story/

Extract: Alison McDowell is a mother and dedicated researcher studying the working parts of the World Economic Forum’s declared “Fourth Industrial Revolution” and the global takeover of industries and public policies by the central banks, multinational corporations, big tech technocrats and billionaire funded foundations.

  1. Graphene Fibers Introduction


https://www.graphene-one.com/qs-graphen-fibers/

Extract: Graphene, as the thinnest, hardest, most conductive and new nanometer carbon material, has been praised as “black gold” and “king of new materials” in the industry . Graphene not only has excellent electrical properties (electron mobility up to 200,000 cm2/Vs at room temperature), light weight, good thermal conductivity (5000 W/mK), large specific surface area (2630 m2/g), young’s modulu  s (1100 GPa) and rupture strength (125 GPa), but also has some unique properties, such as quantum hall effect, quantum tunneling effect, etc . Since 2004, when professor Geim’s group at the university of Manchester successfully obtained graphene by mechanical stripping, it has attracted worldwide attention and attracted numerous researchers to pursue the dream of new materials . Graphene can be widely used in lithium ion battery electrode materials, supercapacitors, solar battery electrode materials, thin film transistor preparation, sensors, semiconductor devices, transparent display touch screens and transparent electrodes, etc. (as shown in figure 1).Graphene is combined with ordinary fiber, which has special functions such as antibacterial, anti-mite, anti-heat, anti-cutting, anti-static, anti-ultraviolet, far-infrared heating and conduction cooling.

Copied and pasted – not verified:

“Sound familiar? Graphene oxide is also known as “Morgellons fibers.” These are the primary nano-technology (nano-fibers) proven to be in injection formulas. Translucent, with a diameter similar to that of a single cell, graphene nano-fibers have a crystalline structure. like most crystalline substances, given the proper environment, they are self-replicating.

The graphene oxide payload in just a single injection is capable of filling the human body to brimming with Morgellons fibers within a short period, having the natural tendency to bond both to blood capillaries and neuro-anatomy. The former effect is responsible for widely reported “micro-clotting” from injections – skin outbreaks and swollen extremities – also responsible for more extreme clotting reactions related to near-term death via heart attack or stroke (which is expected to happen to many with one but esp. more than one injection in coming months and years, as their graphene nano-fiber payload self-replicates).

But wait, there’s more! In addition to graphene nano-fibers, there’s the whole mRNA “spike protein” DNA reprogramming whereby the recipient’s body is turned into a SARS corona-virus factory – the injected strains more virulent than anything circulating in the wild – which the immune system will then dutifully “just keep attacking,” almost certainly creating auto-immune degenerative conditions similar to that of HIV-AIDS”

  1. Contract approved to use graphene oxide for water treatment

https://www.watertechonline.com/industry/article/14207800/contract-approved-to-use-graphene-oxide-for-water-treatment

Extract: UK technology business G2O Water Technologies has landed its first commercial contract for the enhancement of water filtration membranes with graphene oxide. This is particularly significant for both the technology company as well as the water sector globally, as it is the first commercially successful application of the recently developed material for water treatment.



  1. Safety Assessment of Graphene-Based Materials: Focus on Human Health and the Environment

https://pubs.acs.org/doi/10.1021/acsnano.8b04758#

Extract: Graphene and its derivatives are heralded as “miracle” materials with manifold applications in different sectors of society from electronics to energy storage to medicine. The increasing exploitation of graphene-based materials (GBMs) necessitates a comprehensive evaluation of the potential impact of these materials on human health and the environment. Here, we discuss synthesis and characterization of GBMs as well as human and environmental hazard assessment of GBMs using in vitro and in vivo model systems with the aim to understand the properties that underlie the biological effects of these materials; not all GBMs are alike, and it is essential that we disentangle the structure–activity relationships for this class of materials.

  1. How can graphene assist in the war on Coronavirus?

https://www.graphene-info.com/how-can-graphene-assist-war-coronavirus

Extract: As researchers and companies all over the world set out to battle the Coronavirus pandemic, many are revisiting graphene as a material with potential for helping to win this fight. The reasons for such potential could be found in graphene’s known antibacterial/antiviral properties, its beneficial traits for medical sensors and devices and more. Graphene has been shown in the past as extremely useful for creating various sensors. Earlier this month, a team led by Boston College researchers used a sheet of graphene to track the electronic signals inherent in biological structures, in order to develop a platform to selectively identify deadly strains of bacteria. In October 2019, Rice University team under chemist James Tour transformed their laser-induced graphene (LIG) into self-sterilizing filters that grab pathogens out of the air and kill them with small pulses of electricity. Commercially sold graphene-based sensors exist, like the graphene oxide (GO) sensor developed by the ICN2 Nanobioelectronics and Biosensors group that was added in 2016 to the list products offered by Biolin Scientific, a prestigious instrumentation company devoted to the production of analytical devices. The Q-Sense GO sensor enables interaction studies of GO with various analytes (measured substances) of interest and may open the door to various applications with interest for diagnostics, safety/security and environmental monitoring.

  1. The graphene Council

https://www.thegraphenecouncil.org/search/all.asp?c=1&bID=1501180&bst=

  1. Toxicity of graphene-family nanoparticles: a general review of the origins and mechanisms

https://particleandfibretoxicology.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s12989-016-0168-y

Extract: Due to their unique physicochemical properties, graphene-family nanomaterials (GFNs) are widely used in many fields, especially in biomedical applications. Currently, many studies have investigated the biocompatibility and toxicity of GFNs in vivo and in intro. Generally, GFNs may exert different degrees of toxicity in animals or cell models by following with different administration routes and penetrating through physiological barriers, subsequently being distributed in tissues or located in cells, eventually being excreted out of the bodies. This review collects studies on the toxic effects of GFNs in several organs and cell models. We also point out that various factors determine the toxicity of GFNs including the lateral size, surface structure, functionalization, charge, impurities, aggregations, and corona effect ect. In addition, several typical mechanisms underlying GFN toxicity have been revealed, for instance, physical destruction, oxidative stress, DNA damage, inflammatory response, apoptosis, autophagy, and necrosis. In these mechanisms, (toll-like receptors-) TLR-, transforming growth factor β- (TGF-β-) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) dependent-pathways are involved in the signalling pathway network, and oxidative stress plays a crucial role in these pathways. In this review, we summarize the available information on regulating factors and the mechanisms of GFNs toxicity, and propose some challenges and suggestions for further investigations of GFNs, with the aim of completing the toxicology mechanisms, and providing suggestions to improve the biological safety of GFNs and facilitate their wide application.

  1. Graphene Oxide The Vector For Covid-19 Democide

https://ambassadorlove.wordpress.com/2021/07/28/graphene-oxide-the-vector-for-covid-19-democide/

Extract: A shocking new discovery was revealed in April 2021, when Health Canada recalled over a million KN95 face masks containing the highly toxic industrial chemical called GRAPHENE. The poisonous masks came from China’s Shandong Shengquan New Materials Co. Ltd.Following the announcement, Spain recalled millions of masks containing GRAPHENE yet children worldwide are still being forced to wear these poisonous masks in schools.


  1. New window to understanding the brain

https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2016/08/160829122127.htm

Extract: Lieber and colleagues also demonstrated that the syringe-injectable mesh electronics could be used to deliver electrical stimulation to the brain over three months or more. “Ultimately, our aim is to create these with the goal of finding clinical applications,” Lieber said. “What we found is that, because of the lack of immune response (to the mesh electronics), which basically insulates neurons, we can deliver stimulation in a much more subtle way, using lower voltages that don’t damage tissue.” The possibilities, however, don’t end there.The seamless integration of the electronics and biology, Lieber said, could open the door to an entirely new class of brain-machine interfaces and vast improvements in prosthetics, among other fields.

  1. COVID-19: Attacks the 1-Beta Chain of Hemoglobin and Captures the Porphyrin to Inhibit Human Heme Metabolism

Abstract: The novel coronavirus pneumonia (COVID-19) is an infectious acute respiratory infection caused by the novel coronavirus. The virus is a positive-strand RNA virus with high homology to bat coronavirus. In this study, conserved domain analysis, homology modeling, and molecular docking were used to compare the biological roles of certain proteins of the novel coronavirus. The results showed the ORF8 and surface glycoprotein could bind to the porphyrin, respectively. At the same time, orf1ab, ORF10, and ORF3a proteins could coordinate attack the heme on the 1-beta chain of hemoglobin to dissociate the iron to form the porphyrin. The attack will cause less and less hemoglobin that can carry oxygen and carbon dioxide. The lung cells have extremely intense poisoning and inflammatory due to the inability to exchange carbon dioxide and oxygen frequently, which eventually results in ground-glass-like lung images. The mechanism also interfered with the normal heme anabolic pathway of the human body, is expected to result in human disease. According to the validation analysis of these finds, chloroquine could prevent orf1ab, ORF3a, and ORF10 to attack the heme to form the porphyrin, and inhibit the binding of ORF8 and surface glycoproteins to porphyrins to a certain extent, effectively relieve the symptoms of respiratory distress. Favipiravir could inhibit the envelope protein and ORF7a protein bind to porphyrin, prevent the virus from entering host cells, and catching free porphyrins. Because the novel coronavirus is dependent on porphyrins, it may originate from an ancient virus. Therefore, this research is of high value to contemporary biological experiments, disease prevention, and clinical treatment.

  1. What Are Porphyrins and How Are They Connected to Porphyria?

Extract: Porphyrins are ring-shaped molecules that undergo a series of chemical changes to produce heme — an important component of the protein hemoglobin, which carries oxygen in red blood cells. Heme is also important in oxidative phosphorylation, the process by which cells produce ATP (an energy molecule) in cellular compartments called mitochondria (also known as a cell’s “powerhouse”). Cells use heme to transport electrons during the process of making ATP. Almost all cells have mitochondria, and rely on this process for energy.

  1. The pathophysiology of ‘happy’ hypoxemia in COVID-19

https://respiratory-research.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s12931-020-01462-5

Abstract: The novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic is a global crisis, challenging healthcare systems worldwide. Many patients present with a remarkable disconnect in rest between profound hypoxemia yet without proportional signs of respiratory distress (i.e. happy hypoxemia) and rapid deterioration can occur. This particular clinical presentation in COVID-19 patients contrasts with the experience of physicians usually treating critically ill patients in respiratory failure and ensuring timely referral to the intensive care unit can, therefore, be challenging. A thorough understanding of the pathophysiological determinants of respiratory drive and hypoxemia may promote a more complete comprehension of a patient’s clinical presentation and management. Preserved oxygen saturation despite low partial pressure of oxygen in arterial blood samples occur, due to leftward shift of the oxyhemoglobin dissociation curve induced by hypoxemia-driven hyperventilation as well as possible direct viral interactions with hemoglobin. Ventilation-perfusion mismatch, ranging from shunts to alveolar dead space ventilation, is the central hallmark and offers various therapeutic targets.

  1. Reshaping Graphene’s Future

https://kavlifoundation.org/news/reshaping-graphenes-future

Extract :Graphene can morph from conductor to semiconductor and back again just by changing its geometry. This could open the door for high-performance computing and nanoscale quantum devices.


  1. Porphyrins: Oxygen and Electrons

https://jenniferlake.wordpress.com/tag/the-invisible-rainbow/

Extract: “Porphyrins are light sensitive pigments” bound into molecules we know as heme and chlorophyll. Heme and iron together make up the core of oxygen-carrying hemoglobin in red blood cells; oxygen metabolism being our most basic function of life. Ten minutes of oxygen deprivation can lead to a rapid death. The porphyrins have special ‘electron transport’ qualities that make them ‘electrosensitive’ and interesting to industry. They also have chemical cousins called pyrroles which are similar and will be the subject of another descriptive blog-post because of the commercial value of the pyrrole group. But first, the porphyrins –particularly where an excess of circulating porphyrins caused by environmental poisons and electrical overload leads to dire malfunctions including the paralyzing, fatiguing, immune- deficient and ‘flu-like’ spectrum of ills.

  1. The Invisible Rainbow: A History of Electricity and Life by Arthur Firstenberg

https://www.5gexposed.com/wp-content/uploads/2019/04/English-Summary-of-The-Invisible-Rainbow-A-History-of-Electricity-and-Life-3.pdf

Extract: This remarkably well-documented and -referenced book is a cornerstone in the sense that it traces the deployment of electricity in our civilization, in terms of its interaction with living organisms, from its initial discovery in the 1740s all the way to our time, and even projected into the future. It should be noted that the title refers to the entire electromagnetic spectrum comprising the colors of the rainbow, including the invisible frequencies such as radio frequencies and the fields generated around conducting wires.

  1. PubChem

https://pubchem.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/?fbclid=IwAR1E8f0lSmARCEuUBGCJRWsvju2_8nGNF7LYDPo3P6TnNXbGONDrDG5b7W4#query=covid-19&tab=patent

https://pubchem.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/?fbclid=IwAR1E8f0lSmARCEuUBGCJRWsvju2_8nGNF7LYDPo3P6TnNXbGONDrDG5b7W4#query=graphene%20oxide&tab=pubmed


https://pubchem.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/?fbclid=IwAR1E8f0lSmARCEuUBGCJRWsvju2_8nGNF7LYDPo3P6TnNXbGONDrDG5b7W4#query=magnetism

Description: PubChem is the world’s largest collection of freely accessible chemical information. Search chemicals by name, molecular formula, structure, and other identifiers.


  1. The Nanotechnology Revolution

https://www.thenewatlantis.com/publications/the-nanotechnology-revolution

Extract Today, in the young field of nanotechnology, scientists and engineers are taking control of atoms and molecules individually, manipulating them and putting them to use with an extraordinary degree of precision. Word of the promise of nanotechnology is spreading rapidly, and the air is thick with news of nanotech breakthroughs. Governments and businesses are investing billions of dollars in nanotechnology R&D, and political alliances and battle lines are starting to form. Public awareness of nanotech is clearly on the rise, too, partly because references to it are becoming more common in popular culture — with mentions in movies (like The Hulk and The Tuxedo), books (including last year’s Michael Crichton bestseller, Prey), video games (such as the “Metal Gear Solid” series), and television (most notably in various incarnations of Star Trek).

  1. Virus-Sized Transistors

https://www.harvardmagazine.com/2011/01/virus-sized-transistors

Extract: Lieber has worked for the past decade on the design and synthesis of nanoscale parts that will enable him to build tiny electronic devices (see “Liquid Computing,” November-December 2001, page 20). Devising a biological interface, in which a nanoscale device can actually communicate with a living organism, has been an explicit goal from the beginning, but has proven tricky. At its simplest, the problem was inserting a transistor constructed on a flat plane (think of the surface of a computer chip) into a three-dimensional object: a cell perhaps 10 microns in size. Merely piercing the cell was not enough, because transistors need a source wire from which electrons flow and a drain wire through which they are discharged. The key, Lieber says, was figuring out how to introduce two 120-degree bends into a linear wire in order to create a “V” or hairpin configuration, with the transistor near the tip. Getting the entire structure off the surface on which it had been created was easier: Lieber integrated the nano-wire probes with a pair of bimetal, layered interconnects. Joined strips of two different metals that expand at different rates have been used in thermostats for years–when the temperature changes, one metal swells or contracts more than the other, bending the thermostat to the opposite side to accommodate the expansion. Lieber used this principle to lift the transistor up and out of the flat plane on which it was created. When he finally engineered the tiny device and tried to insert it into a cell, however, he had no luck: pressing hard enough to disrupt the cell membrane, he reports, killed the cell “pretty quickly.” But when his team coated the hairpin nanowire with a fatty lipid layer (the same substance cell membranes are made of), the device was easily pulled into the cell via membrane fusion, a process related to the one cells use to engulf viruses and bacteria. 


  1. Liquid Computing

https://www.harvardmagazine.com/2001/11/liquid-computing.html

Extract: Lieber and his team of chemists have done a kind of end-run around the silicon-based microelectronics industry, which for the last 35 years has been making transistors–tiny switches that can be either on or off–exponentially smaller every 18 to 24 months. Intel chairman emeritus Gordon Moore observed this doubling of computing capacity as early as 1965, and his observation became codified as “Moore’s Law.” However, says Lieber, “continued shrinkage ultimately becomes problematic in terms of just how one achieves [it].” Scientists anticipate that we will reach the limits of our ability to create silicon chips using standard fabrication line methods sometime between 2012 and 2017.


  1. Charles Lieber – List of Patents

Results of Search in US Patent Collection db for:
IN/Lieber-charles-$: 66 patents.


https://patft.uspto.gov/netacgi/nph-Parser?Sect1=PTO2&Sect2=HITOFF&u=%2Fnetahtml%2FPTO%2Fsearch-adv.htm&r=0&f=S&l=50&d=PTXT&RS=%22Charles+lieber%22&Refine=Refine+Search&Query=IN%2FLieber-charles-%24


  1. Charles Lieber Patent: Controlled synthesis of monolithically-integrated graphene structure

https://patft.uspto.gov/netacgi/nph-Parser?Sect1=PTO2&Sect2=HITOFF&u=%2Fnetahtml%2FPTO%2Fsearch-adv.htm&r=19&f=G&l=50&d=PTXT&p=1&S1=Lieber-charles-$.INNM.&OS=IN/Lieber-charles-$&RS=IN/Lieber-charles-$

  1. A Fully 3D Interconnected Graphene–Carbon Nanotube Web Allows the Study of Glioma Infiltration in Bioengineered 3D Cortex-Like Networks

https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1002/adma.201806132

Abstract: Currently available 3D assemblies based on carbon nanotubes (CNTs) lag far behind their 2D CNT-based bricks and require major improvements for biological applications. By using Fe nanoparticles confined to the interlamination of graphite as catalyst, a fully 3D interconnected CNT web is obtained through the pores of graphene foam (GCNT web) by in situ chemical vapor deposition. This 3D GCNT web has a thickness up to 1.5 mm and a completely geometric, mechanical and electrical interconnectivity. Dissociated cortical cells cultured inside the GCNT web form a functional 3D cortex-like network exhibiting a spontaneous electrical activity that is closer to what is observed in vivo. By coculturing and fluorescently labeling glioma and healthy cortical cells with different colors, a new in vitro model is obtained to investigate malignant glioma infiltration. This model allows the 3D trajectories and velocity distribution of individual infiltrating glioma to be reconstructed with an unprecedented precision. The model is cost effective and allows a quantitative and rigorous screening of anticancer drugs. The fully 3D interconnected GCNT web is biocompatible and is an ideal tool to study 3D biological processes in vitro representing a pivotal step toward precise and personalized medicine.

  1. Fe-Oxide Nanoparticles

https://denisrancourt.ca/categories.php?id=2&name=fe_oxide_nanoparticles

Various publications – Denis Rancourt

  1. Wonder-material graphene could be dangerous to humans and the environment

https://newatlas.com/graphene-bad-for-environment-toxic-for-humans/31851/

Extract: I’ve been waiting for some time now to write a headline along the lines of “scientists discover thing that graphene is not amazing at” … and here it is. Everybody’s favorite nanomaterial may have a plethora of near-magical properties, but as it turns out, it could also be bad for the environment – and bad for you, too.

  1. Bombshell News: American Medical Researchers Witness SELF-ASSEMBLING Graphene Oxide Nanotech or AI Syn Bio in Moderna Vaccine Under Microscope

https://everydayconcerned.net/2021/08/12/bombshell-news-american-medical-researchers-witness-self-assembling-graphene-oxide-nanotech-or-ai-syn-bio-in-moderna-vaccine-under-microscope/

Extract: In bombshell news pointing to the much-speculated-on presence of nanobots in vaccines, an American medical researcher reports that moving, shifting, self-assembling nano-particulates of possibly Graphene Oxide and/or forming synthetic biology polymers were seen under an optical microscope in a few drops of Moderna vaccine from a freshly-opened vial of Moderna






Videos (some yet to be fully reviewed)

What’s Graphene And Why It’ll Soon Take Over The World

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=dQCJpYR0og8

“Engines of Destruction…” (The ‘animal trials’ for the great graphene nanowire revolution…)

https://odysee.com/@thetruthisstrangerthanfiction:3/engines-of-destruction:0

Karen Kingston ex Pfizer employee who says there is Graphene Oxide in the Shots- further interviews and details/ analysis in the 5 videos below:

15th July 2021 (covers key events at the start of the “pandemic” and VAERS data and “approval” of the injections)

16th July 2021 : (covers the manufacturer “trials”, efficacy, patents and the use of graphene by Sinopeg)

21st July 2021 (NIH collaboration on creation of a bioweapon, detail on the lipid nanoparticles, graphene oxide and how it is used to ensure that the MRNA is indestructible, transmission/ shedding)

https://dougbillings.us/video/creators-of-covid19-the-jab-guilty-of-worst-crime-in-human-history/

26th July 2021 (shedding, why they are called vaccines and not gene therapy, guidelines for shedding and risks and warnings being ignored)

https://dougbillings.us/video/dougs-continuing-investigative-interview-with-karen-kingston-7-26-2021/

27th July 2021 : (actual and possible consequences of the injections, shedding,how we know the Delta variant is from the vaccine and how they named the vaccines after the variant names they would create and use of NAC)

2nd August 2021

https://www.bek.news/therightside/49a15df5-9aec-427d-83af-0458e1ef8097/#/

What is MAGNETOFECTION? What does MAGNETOFECTION mean? MAGNETOFECTION meaning & explanation

MAGNETIC NANOMATERIALS IN THE INJECTIONS, MASKS & SWABS

Amazing Polly: https://www.bitchute.com/video/GMtUZfHuQNlL/

UK Medical Doctor – Experimental Covid-19 “Vaccines” and Genocide

Magnetic injections, RF EMF from wireless devices, and hydrogel in nasal swabs may synergistically damage the brainstem and cranial nerves. UK Medical Doctor:

MAGNETISM INTENTIONALLY ADDED TO ‘VACCINE’ TO FORCE MRNA THROUGH ENTIRE BODY

https://www.bitchute.com/video/nZxR7duafAeF

Are mRNA/DNA Covid Vaccines Contain Magnetic Nanoparticle Robots?

Two recently-vaccinated women report that the injection site becomes powerfully magnetic

https://forbiddenknowledgetv.net/were-fd/

CELESTE SOLUM – VACCINE AGENDA EXPOSED ( NANO TECH HYDROGEL IN THE C19 VACCINE)

The Real Cause of COVID-19 (Not a Virus)

Graphene Oxide in the Vaccines

https://brandnewtube.com/watch/graphene-oxide-in-the-vaccines_UVcRF61lzIheX7r.html

Hydrogel Superparamagnetic Nanoparticles Vs Magnet

MAGNETISM INTENTIONALLY ADDED TO ‘VACCINE’ TO FORCE MRNA THROUGH ENTIRE BODY

Transmission, Variants, Magnetism and more…Dr. Tenpenny, Dr. Northrup and Dr. Malthouse

Dr Pierre Gilbert Warned In 1995 About Magnetic Vaccines (English Subtitles)

https://radiopatriot.net/2021/06/22/dr-pierre-gilbert-warned-in-1995-about-magnetic-vaccines-english-subtitles/

BREAKING: THERE’S GRAPHENE OXIDE IN THE VACCINATION VIALS! IT’S CONFIRMED!!!

THE COVID VACCINE MAGNET CHALLENGE – The Highwire

Vaccination Video of Bill Gates 2005

PCR Testing and the Genome Beast

https://www.ukcolumn.org/video/pcr-testing-and-the-genome-beast

BBC, No your jab isn’t magnetic more condescending nonsense from the UKs prop4ganda channel

Wake Up From Covid

Weird Science: Magnetogenetics (magnetic proteins to control animal behavior) + “Engineering of Parasites” to “transport” proteins to the brain.

https://t.me/wakeupfromcovid/104

Genetic Engineering Will Change Everything Forever – CRISPR

2 Chinese Babies With Edited Genes May Face Higher Risk Of Premature Death

https://www.npr.org/sections/health-shots/2019/06/03/727957768/2-chinese-babies-with-edited-genes-may-face-higher-risk-of-premature-death?t=1626640798220

MAGNETIC NANOPARTICLES TRIGGERED BY 5G WARNING

“Electro Magnetic Frequencies [EMF] are being detected in inoculated patients around the world.”

Luciferase-Modified Magnetic Nanoparticles in Medical Imaging

By Philip Renkert, Emily Chen, and Megan Mazzatenta

Magnetic nanoparticles: Iron oxides and metal ferrites NPs as a unique drug delivery system

Ferrofluid contains nanoparticles of magnetite. It can destroy your lungs.

Monster magnet meets magnetic fluid…

https://t.me/robinmg/3762

What about this… Magnetic fluorescent nanoparticles can be seen in MRI scans?

The magnetic/behaviour control was being warned about back in the 90’s it seems

https://153news.net/watch_video.php?v=KB3OW1YHU87H

5G Health Hazard (Dr. Barrie Trower & Sir Julian Rose)

http://youtu.be/DLVIbPtNrVo

http://youtu.be/TZ3t6n2SkUY

MagnetGate: Magnets Stick To Covid Vaccine Injection Site FULL 2021 DOCUMENTARY #MagnetChallenge

https://odysee.com/@TimTruth:b/Magnetvaccinearmdocumentary:a

https://fractory.com/magnetic-metals-non-magnetic-metals-with-examples/

Cooking Cancer with Magnetic Nanoparticles and Hyperthermia

Graphene Oxide A Toxic Substance in the Vial of mRNA Vaccine – Interview with Ricardo Delgado

Electromagnetic Mind Control – Dr Faiez Kirsten on Community Pulse

Whitney Webb Interview – Is There Graphene Oxide In The COVID-19 Injections?

STEW PETERS WITH KAREN KINGSTON – FORMER PFIZER EMPLOYEE CONFIRMS POISON IN COVID ‘KILL SHOT

Graphene Skies

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